Leopard 1A5NO - The Norwegian Army's updated Leopard 1

LEOPARD 1A5NO


TYPE: Medium Tank
PICTURE: Here is the Leopard 1A5NO witht he AVEC camouflage/details

ARMAMENT

  • 1x Royal Ordnance L7A3 Rifled 105mm cannon
    -Elevation: +20° to -9°
    -Capasity: 52 rounds (39x in 2nd stowage hull & 13 in 1rst stowage)
    -Cartrigde: 105mm x 617mm

  • 1x 7.62x51mm MG3
    -Ammunition capasity: 4.250
    -Mountage: Not mounded on the commanders hatch
    -Ammuntiton mixture:
    -Norwegian Model 60 Full metal jacket
    -Norwegian Model 62 Tracer

  • 1x coaxial 7.62x51mm MG3
    -Ammunition capasity: 1.000
    -Ammuntiton mixture:
    -Norwegian Model 60 Full metal jacket
    -Norwegian Model 62 Tracer

  • 8x 76mm smoke grenade launchers
    -76 Millimeter

TECHNICAL DATA
Eigne: MTU 838 CaM-500
Cylinders/type: V10
Horsepower: 830 hp
Length: 9.54m
Width: 3.37m
Weight: 42.2 Ton
Fuel: 930 Litres

CREW
Crew: 4x (Commander, Gunner, Loader, Driver)

PERFORMANCE
Top speed: 62 Km/h
Range on-road: 600 km
Range cross-country: 450 km
Gradient: 60%
Side Slope: 30%
Vertical step: 1.15 m
Trench: 3.0 m
Wade depth without preparation: 1.2 m
Wade depth with preparation 2.25m
Wade depth with Snorkel: 4m

NORWEGIAN MODIFICATIONS
-Nitrogen based fire extinguisher system
-New hydraulic buffers
-Electric Traverse
–They then got rid of the hydraulics in the tower
–Norway is alone in using this on the Leopard
-Rubber bulges
–Mounted on the exhaust outlets on both sides of the eigne and the heater
–Developed and made in Norway
-Camouflage nettings
–Summer camouflage
–Winter camouflage
–Correct paint/camouflage and marks

AMMUNITION
105mm Cannon

  • HESH
  • DM12 HEAT
  • DM33 APFSDS
  • DM23 APFSDS

7.62x51mm MG3

  • Norwegian Model 60 Metal jacket
  • Norwegian Model 62 Tracer
  • Norwegian Model 62/20 Used in a Mixture (full metal jacket and tracer ammunition)

IMPORTANT INFORMATION

  • -On Norwegian Leopard 1 carriages, the gunner did not have his own periscope, but observed through the main sight (EMES18).

  • -In addition to the EMES-18, the shooter also had a TZF spare sight that magnified 8x. This sight was mounted parallel to the cannon.

  • -Ammunition capacity was 55 shells, of which 13 were stored in the “ready row” in the tower. (In reality, the ammo capacity was only 52 regular shells, as 3 of the holders in the hull only fit the outdated APDS ammunition.).

  • -One ammunition box supplies the coaxial machinegun with 1000 rounds of .30 cal ammunition. The turret mounted machineguns have ammunition crates eith 4250 rounds of ammunition stored in turret and hull.

  • -The main sight had 12x magnification, and the main sight consisted of an optical sight for use during the day, and a thermal sight for use in the dark. The thermal sight could also be adjusted between 4x and 12x magnification. The main sight also contained a laser rangefinder that could measure distances with an accuracy of 10 meters out to 10,000mdd.

HISTORY
The Leopard was developed on the basis of experiences from World War 2 and experiences gained in the post-war period. The wagon was developed in the late 1950s/early 60s, the first ones then entered German service in 1965 and have since been Germany’s standard tank. It has also undergone a number of upgrades over the years and has now come in yet another new and improved edition. Leopard 1 has been in use in a number of countries around the world, including Australia and Canada. Today, Leopard 1 is on its way out of the installations of quite a few countries, which has meant that a number of new user countries have also come up, there are countries such as Brazil and Chile.

1A5NO & 1A5NO2
In 1989 it was decided to upgrade all 78 Norwegian Leopards with a new fire control system and an overhaul of the hulls. Tandum Tekniske Verksted overhauled the hulls and some components for the towers. A number of small modifications were made to the hulls, including new hydraulic buffers. This improved the suspension properties of the wagons. The towers were sent to Wegmann in Germany for upgrading

The Norwegian wagons were equipped with an electric straightening system, which then got rid of the hydraulics in the tower. This was a good choice, which has saved the defense a lot of expensive maintenance. Norway is alone in using this on the Leopard 1A5

The wagons were reassembled at Tandum Tekniske Verksted and the entire system tested. Around 1992, 92 used Leopard 1 A1A4s were purchased from Germany, 33 of which were modified to A5 standard. These carriages differ in that they have additional armor on the turret, they were therefore designated LEOPARD 1 A5NO2

These upgrades were largely completed in 1995. It has been decided that the Army will take the 1A5 out of service, only a small number would be retained for training use

One of the two machineguns used on this tank, was mounted outside on the turret and on the pintle mount on the left hatch. this was because in a combat situation the commander played a too important role analyzing the field and telling the crew what to so, and all the other tasks, wich the commander is responsible of. and to have to control a machinegun as well was not optimal for the commander

NORWEGIAN MODIFICATIONS IN-DEPTH

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NEW HYDRAULIC BUFFERS

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Better/modern and more effective hydraulic “recoil brake” increasing accuracy and reducing the recoil. wich also makes the environment better for the crew
unsure about it specs. it proved to be harder to find specs on this than i tought

ELECTRIC TRAVERSE/STRAIGHTENING SYSTEM

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The Norwegian wagons were equipped with an electric straightening system, which then got rid of the hydraulics in the tower. This was a good choice, which has saved the defense a lot of expensive maintenance. Norway is alone in using this on the Leopard 1A5
unsure about it specs. it proved to be harder to find specs on this than i tought

NITROGEN BASED FIRE EXTINGUISHER SYSTEM

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https://i.ibb.co/TR7DgJG/IMG-1229.jpg
Here is an example of how it works (this is on a bus) so it is proably a different mounting/system on the Leopard tank

Nitrogen fire suppression systems use pure Nitrogen, which is a naturally occurring gas present in the atmosphere. It is safe for use in occupied spaces and poses no threat to the environment. The Nitrogen works as a fire suppressant by reducing the oxygen level within a room to a point at which the fire will extinguish, without compromising the safety of individuals present in the room. Nitrogen will not decompose or produce any by-products when exposed to a flame.

this is therefore an effective and safe fire extinguisher, ecpecially for the safety of the tank crew

MORE PICTURES
brannslukker — ImgBB

RUBBER BULGES

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In the picture mounted on one of the 33 upgraded 1A5NO2

HISTORY
This is a Norwegian invention (should be) and was developed in the late 1980s at the FFI-Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt (FFI- Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt)

This was developed for all Leopard 1 hulls, and was fitted to the then Leopard 1A5NO, the upgraded Leopard 1A5NO2 and possibly the Leopard 1A1NO.

As we know, the Leopard 1 has a very visible thermal signature, and this bleu was developed to reduce precisely this. it was mounted above the outlet of the exhaust on both sides of the engine, the function is such that you lead the hot exhaust away from the motorcycle and the carriage. something similar was mounted above the heater as well, because it was also quite hot (unfortunately, I don’t know exactly where on the wagon this is).

This could also serve as additonal protection aginst HE shells and such

PICTURES
https://i.ibb.co/1mfGRk3/finished-4.jpg
Here is a very accurate model of the tank, showing the rubber bulges very good!

https://i.ibb.co/BtGsPbL/20230520-230011.jpg
Here is a Ingenørpanservogn NM189 with the bulges mounted! part of the reason you won’t see may pictures with those mounted, was that they were really easy to rip off when driving in terrains and small forests. you can see the left bulge has been damaged a bit here

https://i.ibb.co/d0nR0x7/finished-2.jpg
Those rubber bulges were among the crew called “batman wings” i wonder why hehe

https://i.ibb.co/hW7r1fh/20230520-225809.jpg
Here is a NM217 ARV with the bulges mounted

https://i.ibb.co/qWjb44m/20230520-230043.jpg
Here is a leopard chassy with a MAN mechanized brigde

MORE PICTURES
Rubber bulges — ImgBB

AMMUNITION IN-DEPTH

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Raufoss Ammunisjonsfabrikker - 7,62x51 NATO NM60 metal jacket bullet

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https://i.ibb.co/Lg0ZP62/Eske-762x51-RA-skarp-20skudd-NM60-7-RA-72-5.jpg
MODEL AND PRODUCTION
Caliber: 7.62x51 NATO
Type: Sharp
Model: NM60
Manufacturer: Raufoss Ammunitionsfabrikker
Country of manufacture: Norway
Year of production: 1967-2001
ID: SAA2805

TECHNICAL DATA
Total length: 70.8 mm
Cartridge weight: 23.7 grams
Ball diameter: 7.82 mm
Bullet length: 28.6 mm
Bullet weight: 9.5 grams
Bullet type: Full jacket
Ball casing material: Copper-plated brass
Ball core material: Lead
Gunpowder weight: 3.0 grams
Ignition mechanism: Berdan
Tooth cap diameter: 5.50 mm
Sleeve material: Brass
Sleeve length: 51 mm
Bottom diameter: 11.95 mm
Sleeve base: Rimless
Teeth cap: Green

The NM60 cartridge was put into production after the AG3 was chosen in Norway. The first Norwegian LOT was 18-RA-67. The cartridge was in continuous production until LOT 12-RA-01 was delivered in 2001. Production was then moved to Vanäverken in Karlsborg in Sweden in connection with Raufoss Ammunitionsfabrikker becoming part of NAMMO

Raufoss Ammunisjonsfabrikker - 7,62x51 NATO NM62 Tracer bullet

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https://i.ibb.co/fnGvRCG/Patron-762x51-RA-NM62-Sporlys-25-RA-77-1.jpg
MODEL AND PRODUCTION
Caliber: 7.62x51 NATO
Type: Track light
Model: NM62
Manufacturer: Raufoss Ammunitionsfabrikker
Country of manufacture: Norway
Year of production: UNKNOWN
ID: SAA2805

TECHNICAL DATA
Total length: 70.8 mm
Cartridge weight: 23.2 grams
Ball diameter: 7.82 mm
Bullet length: 33.8 mm
Bullet weight: 9.0 grams
Bullet type: Track light
Ball casing material: Copper-plated steel
Bullet core material: Lead and tracer kit
Gunpowder weight: 2.9 grams
Ignition mechanism: Berdan
Tooth cap diameter: 5.50 mm
Sleeve material: Brass
Sleeve length: 51 mm
Bottom diameter: 11.95 mm
Sleeve base: Rimless
Teeth cap: Green

The NM62 is the tracer cartridge that was used both in the AG3 and in machine guns. When used in machine guns, the cartridges were put in bands with four NM60 and one NM62 one after the other, this cartridge has an orange tip

DM12 105mm HEAT “Blåmann”

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https://i.ibb.co/Hrnftc6/295307-176938675712645-7059308-n.jpg
https://i.ibb.co/x3rQ53Y/903395-462976417108868-1411857835-o.jpg
there is most pictures of this ammunition in-use, because this was what they used the most

DECALS & CAMOUFLAGES

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DECALS “AVEC”

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https://i.ibb.co/xGYvhms/333094-414663581940152-1247563243-o.jpg
https://i.ibb.co/G0QJGD6/291688-176942212378958-7197515-o.jpg
https://i.ibb.co/mHDZPDD/278042-414663585273485-14440414-o.jpg

DETAILS

  • 113 numbers on both sides
  • AVEC name on both sides
  • The decal as seen on the picture, a screaming lion, painted on both sides.
  • Logs on the side of the turret, on the backside on both sides both to get the vehicle unstuck from mud and possibly other tasks. Can work as add on armor in game will aslo make its appearance more unique
  • Numberplate 62278 in the front as seen in the picture and on the back, on a toolbox to the left, this will give the tank characteristic appearance
  • Tools as usual along the sides of the hull, the reason it is not in the picture is most likely due to mainetance. you can see these tools good at the pictures under camouflages
  • Snowshoes, Most likely for the winter/spring/atums camouflages
  • Logs on top of (behind) the eigne, these are to get the vehicle unstuck if it gets stuckl in the mud, will also work as add on armour. it would make the appearance look much more unique and special, wich is a important benefit
  • Norwegian pain/camo

Might be some moredetails i am missin. but studiying the pictures will reveal a lot!

CAMOUFLAGES

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https://i.ibb.co/41XMqV7/474509-477996988940144-180185059-o.jpg
https://i.ibb.co/m84wdRw/291067-177928302280349-3044002-o.jpg
Note that this has a different name and numbers, but it is still the same 1A5NO verison
https://i.ibb.co/ZK5MNDy/286547-176937702379409-258921-o.jpg
https://i.ibb.co/P9Rr2Sm/466594-280638152009363-409290559-o.jpg
Note the white netting on the cannon barrel

SOURCES

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www.facebook.com

A SKIN FOR THE MARKETPLACE

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https://i.ibb.co/x3rQ53Y/903395-462976417108868-1411857835-o.jpg
DETAILS

  • Deer antlers mounted on the gun mantlet, proably on top of it
  • Camouflage net/or some kind of fabric swapped around the cannon barrel
  • Logs on the back of the tank to get it unstuck from mud. also work as add on armour
  • ammocrate strapped onto the turret
  • flag (unknown)
  • White fabric knied onto the “gitter” on the back of the turret, for camouflaging
  • The shields on the center in the back of the turret and on each side of the turret (as you can see if you look closely at the picture. this is a White lion on a blue shield!
  • Numberplate 62387 on the left backside and on the front of the tank (as decribed for the avec, it is the same situation)
  • It should have a name as well, but i struggle to see it

CREW UNIFORMS

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https://i.ibb.co/yXyqnx7/289816-177898208950025-3997574-o.jpg
Note that in the picture is the Leopard 1A5NO2, i choose this picture due to its quality

DETAILS OUTFIT

  • Black beret with H5 emblem (H5-Harald V)

I do not know any more about the uniform

SOURCES

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PICTURES OF THE "AVEC CAMO"

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https://i.ibb.co/gDjqcjj/278042-414663585273485-14440414-o.jpg
https://i.ibb.co/xGYvhms/333094-414663581940152-1247563243-o.jpg

PICTURES AND IMPORTANT DETAILS!

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  1. Leopad 1A5NO LEOPARD 1A5NO — ImgBB
  2. Rubber Bulges Rubber bulges — ImgBB
  3. Machine gun Ammunition AMMO — ImgBB

VIDEOS

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https://youtu.be/fztpc1OCSBY
https://youtu.be/JaJamcaMzfY
https://youtu.be/mVKofCw4UXE

SOURCES

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https://www.forsvaret.no/
https://digitaltmuseum.no/
National archives
The book “Motoriserte militærkjøretøy I norge 1905-2005” wich is released by our armed forces/defence museum (https) 3.000 books published
Amazon.com
https://www.kammeret.no/topic/57480-nm-betegnelser-for-ammunisjon-våpen-materiell-og-kjøretøy-rev-16102018/

[Would you like to see this in-game?]
  • Yes
  • No
0 voters

This post was made by
Til_Dovre_Faller
Also known as
Warthunder_Norway

2 Likes

The Leopard 1A5NO2 is already in the game, so i don’t think this one should be added, unless a Norwegian sub tree would be added, like we see with the Finnish one, though personally I’m all for more Leo 1A5, 1A3 and 1A1 variants (like this Norse one and the Belgian ones with very unique gun fire&control systems).

Previous Leopard 1 suggestions:

If a Norwegian subtree or techtree were to be added. This should be added to the regular techtree as an researchable vehicle, mabye at a slightly lower br like 9.0, as these two vehicles have a couple differences, with the major difference being the additional armour on the NO2

1 Like

Does the NO get a worse round? Otherwise I don’t think some armour/mobility decrease compared to the NO2 variant warrants such a difference in BR. *As the differences regarding the gunsight would only really matter in SIM, no?

1 Like

No, the ammunition should be the same, the only difference (that i know about) is the Additional armour on the NO2 and some other modifications

There is a Norwegian training round they both have acess to tough “NM102” but doubt it would have any value

but i dont know, as there are no 1A5 tanks in-game without the additional armour?