Summarized background history:
The UDES 08 (Or refered as Underlagsgrupp Direkt Eld Stridsfordon 08 or PBV 302 Nr. 4033 (Nr. 4033 is refered to it’s serial number)), is a prototype vehicle which the Swedish armed forces together with Hägglund & Söner developed during late 1974-1987 (Only at the period of 1982-1987 was UDES 08 experimented with alternative armaments). The intention of the prototype vehicle, was to create practical experiences as a basis for the studies of various of alternatives to new armored personnel carries. UDES 08 was one of many designs and prototypes which was from the larger UDES family. With the different documentations and testing conducted on the UDES 08, laid some of the foundations for the upcoming Stridsfordon 90 project, which came to being in the mid 1980’s. Which made the UDES 08 indirectly the predecessor of the now famous Swedish Infantry fighting vehicle (Note: Some aspects from the UDES 08 being the passability/mobility in rough terrain/cold enviorment. Also a testbed for the potential armament for both the Strf90 and as REMO upgrade for the rest of the PBV 302’s in service. Also already produced vehicles like the IKV-91 being the reference for the mobility/passability and total weight, were used for the Strf 90’s design. (Back to the UDES 08 )). The inital tests and design on the UDES 08 began around the spring of 1975-1976 and while during it’s first phase. UDES 08 had one of the most unique changes compared to the other Pbv 302’s, which were the passanger compartment. See images below:
On the left you’ll see the concept art of the Remodeling of the Crew Compartment of the UDES 08, on the right is a image how the crew compartment of the UDES 08 looks like in real life.
The overall layout of the UDES 08’s passanger compartment was heavily modified. The passangers seating changed it’s location to the center of the passanger compartment, which in turn would make it possible to reduce the overall volume of the compartment (This was also dummy tested during the developement of the Strf 90) without harming the passangers in the process. One other radical change of the crew compartment of the vehicle. Was the addition of machinegun ports on the sides and rear of the UDES 08 (3 on each side of the vehicle and one at the left rear door, looking at different directions: One center, one left and one right(excluding the rear)), the machinegun ports was armed with 7 x M/45 Carl Gustaf Sub machineguns and had also viewports for each machinegun port which the passangers could use to properly aim with the gun. One of the reasons for this change was because of the passanger’s safety, namely the only other way for the soldiers to shoot. Is by opening the roof above their heads, which in turn would put the soldier in harms way in doing so. Addtional equipment such as a Commander Binoculars was added to the vehicle as well (see images below(Commander Binoculars was later on removed after the REMO turret was installed onto UDES 08 during 1982):
The tests with the new overhauled passenger compartment, were conducted and reported by the "Pansartruppskolans 1. Övningskompanischef kn Kyllergård" in 21-07-1976 . The results of the tests and questions regarding UDES 08 and it’s suitfulness in combat can be as followed:
- Observation Capabilites through the soldiers periscopic view is excellent when standing still and during high speeds on roads or light terrain. During Rougher terrain the view through the periscope is reasonable.
- The distance between the backrest and the wall of the vehicle is too small, causing the passangers to sit slightly crooked.
- The positioning of the Commanders Bionculars is very good. Observation Capabilities is excellent when standing still and reasonable when moving. However were noted it was heavy to lift and operate.
- The rear doors should’ve been mounted more vertical . Noted the how the doors were mounted, made it more difficult altogether to close the doors because of it.
- It would take additional 5 seconds longer to completely disembark everyone in the passenger compartment in UDES 08, compared to the regular produced Pbv 302’s at the time. Main reason was because of the repositioning of the telecommunications equipment.
- The overall accuracy of the Machineguns mounted inside of the Passanger Compartment, was documented to be so poorly. That it was almost impossible to hit anything they tried to shoot upon. (The main reason was likely due to the lack of any form of sights for the machinegun ports).
- The added Machinegun ports to the UDES 08 made the armor on the sides of the vehicle less protective against incoming fire and only gave way for many drawbacks from the design.
The second overhaul of the UDES 08, was during the late 1970’s-1982. The reason for the second modification of the UDES 08, was to test the effectiveness of having overlapping wheels and increased track tension to increase the overall mobility and propulsion force, especially in deep snow or rough terrain. However, with the Overlapping wheels came concerns and risks. Namely the entail of the wheels are in risk of freezing under the Swedish winter conditions, a test was conducted with UDES 08 during the winter of 1981 to counteract the concerns. The test involved pouring cold water on the Overlapping wheels, letting it freeze while covering the vehicle’s tracks with deep snow. See images below for reference:
The tests which the UDES 08 were exposed to, proved the overlapping wheels does not have any problem to be exposed to winter enviorments and without any complications managed to get itself loose. During those tests the UDES 08 has been driven around approximatley 200 km without any form of belt heeling occuring in the process (Belt Heeling (not to confuse you with Shoes or belts if you look up the word) as in Swedish: "Bandkrängning", is when either the track and/or the wheel of the tank/tracked vehicle breaks down. Due to poor maintenance or caused by driving in rough terrain). Further tests were conducted in which the sole purpose was to cause a Belt heeling on the UDES 08. The results was that it was easier for the tracks to cause a Belt Heeling, when the wheels/tracks were filled with mud and being exposed to rough terrain at the same time. However, a positive outcome came from the tests results with the Overlapping wheels and increased track tension: In which UDES 08 had a overall smoother ride when off-road driving. The reason of which is due to the 40% increased energy capacity of the tracks, while at the same time. The increased amount of wheels added onto the armored vehicle, gave away for a continuous stabilized ride of in light and rough terrain. These results from the tests throughout the 2nd overhaul of the UDES 08, was significant importance for the Strf90’s mobility and passability in rough terrain, as well in colder enivorment with lots of Snow (reference images below, note if you see the image on the left. You’ll see the UDES XX 20 prototype tank in the background).
The third and last configuration and testing of the UDES 08 was conducted inbetween 1982-1987. The Swedish armed forces deemed the Pbv 302’s main armament: The 20mm M/47 AKAN, obsolete for its time period. In which the FMV (Försvarets Materielverk) started to look for a new potential replacement for the 20mm M/47 AKAN. While also using it as a way to further study the following weapons as a replacement for the current armament, which is as followed:
- Mauser MK25E
- Oerlikon KBA
- Oerlikon KBB
- Rheinmetall RH 20
- Chaingun M242
The UDES 08 was used for the testing of the Mauser MK25E auto-cannon. Whilist the Pbv 302 No.4002 (Which also took part in this phase of the testing), would be used for testing the 25mm Oerlikon KBA cannon . In around 1983-1987, both of these vehicles were also the testbed for the potential armament for the upcoming Strf90. The reasoning to this was because of the testing, would serve as a basis for the choosing armament for the Strf 90. Mainly to evaluate the weapons through tactical and technical standpoint, which requires to use the FMV requirements and demands for choosing the weapon system. As well, as
Along with a new potential weapon for the Pbv 302 and for the Strf-90, the UDES 08 also received the new REMO Pbv 302 turret as it’s new weapon mount. Compared to it’s older turret, the prototype turret gave way for improved workers condition for the gunner, the smokelaunchers has been mounted on the right side and ontop left side of the turret, with addition of a new sight mounted on the front of the turret and the option to a 3-channel periscope sight (Which had the capability of a day/night vision scope, ground target redicle and airial target redicle). (Reference check REMO Turret 1982-1984 and Weapon/Turret specifications). However in general, it used the same gunners periscope as the Pbv 302’s and also other important components and electronical equipment. The Mauser MK25E was a dual fed magazine fed weapon, which allowed the weapon to carry two magazines at the same time and was able to switch inbetween magazine belt without having to reload the weapon itself. The weapon was also capable of targeting ground and aerial based vehicles with the weapon.
However this modification program for the Pbv 302 would be way too high above the budget and expensive to replace the turret and weapon system on every single Pbv 302 in Swedish service, at the same time. They did not approve the results of excessive long reload time caused by the belt fed magazines from the considered weapon system. Instead, the FMV opted for a cheaper alternative and solve the current issues the Pbv 302’s are currently having. One of which being the excessive reload rates from the belt-fed magazines. Hägglunds & Söner solved the issue by creating a 30 round magazine for the 20mm cannon which gave satisfying results. More improvements for the REMO modification for the Pbv 302 were the introduction of a multi-purpose round which was opted for both ground and arial targets. The Smoke launchers were placed onto the front part of the turret and introduction of a improved reflex sight for the cannon and other miscellaneous such as improved comfort for the crew etc.
Further testings of the UDES 08’s armament were continued until 1987, till it were abandoned and left to rust during the 90’s at a garage in P4 Skaraborgs regementet in Skövde. However, during around 2003-2016 and onwards. A small team of tank enthusiast managed to recover the UDES 08 before it’s innement scrapping by it’s current owners. One of the restorators from the project aka.: Thord Wedman (which has helped me with the vehicles specifications (namely the engine specifications, Max speed, armor (frontally)), aswell the images which you can find below and also the article itself. Which documented the restoration of the UDES 08). After the realization of what type of vehicle which was layed to rust. He went around and contacted several different induviduals and agencies which were involved in the UDES 08 project, in order to find who is currently owning the vehicle itself. While also trying to convince them regarding the historical importance of the vehicle. However the first attempts were futile as they couldn’t just give away a literall tank to a private induvidual. Later on in 2003 Thord partook in a hobby-convention in Stockhol m, which he had his own booth for the SPHF Association (Svensk PansarHistorisk Förening, is a association which everyone in it has the common interest of armoured vehicles/tanks, especially from Swedish Origin). During the convention, there were two induviduals which got their attention on Thord’s booth, especially regarding the UDES 08. It turned out to be the same people which Thord spoke to on the phone, regarding the restoration of the UDES 08 and the potential new owners for the vehicle. After conversing back and forward, they came up with a solution. Which was to give hand over the ownership of the UDES 08 to Axvall Tank Museum (the museum is closed and the vehicles were moved to the new tank Museum of Arsenalen in Strängnäs). That allowed Thord and together with other tank enthusiast to start restoring the vehicle. As of today, the UDES 08 is fully restored (excluding the actual gun) since around 2016. There have been some minor repairs/restorations during 2017+ and the vehicle itself is currently residing at MSS Skövde (Försvarsmakten Markstridsskolan)(Uncertain if the vehicle is displayed or not).
UDES 08 Engine sounds and footage of UDES 08:
|Length:||5 350 mm|
|Width:||2 860 mm|
|Height:||2 500~2 600 mm (if the cannon is aimed horizontally)|
|Clearance height:||360 mm|
|Crew:||3 Crew members + 8 passangers|
|Armor:||22~25mm frontal armor (including frontal turret) - 8~mm elsewhere|
|Engine:||6-Cylinder Penta THD 100B Supercharged diesel engine with direct fuel injection 270 hp|
|Gearbox:||Volvo typ Penta R-60 (Manual gearbox) 8 gears (acceleration) + 2 gears (reverse)|
|Max Speed:||66 km/h|
|Armament:||Mauser MK25E cannon (25x137mm NATO) 7 x 9x19mm M/45 Carl Gustaf Submachine guns, 6 smoke launchers|
|Turret elevation:||- 10 ° + 50 ° , 10 ° /sec|
|Turret rotation:||High ratio: 30°/sec, Low Ratio: 10°/sec|
|Ammo Capacity:||Total ammo capacity: 220~270 rounds, 110 rounds per magazine: (**Bottom belt: 60 rounds, Upper belt: 50 rounds)) Credit: Peter Lindström|
|Ammunition types:||APDS-T (slpprj / M791), HEI-T (slsgr / M792)|
|Rate of Fire/Velocity :||700-900 Rounds per minute (Full automatic), ~ 1110 m/s (Velocity)|
|Number in service:||1 prototype|
- UDES 08 Restoration Team
- Peter Lindström: Employee of BAE systems and former employee of Hägglunds during the UDES 08 project.
- Pbv 302
- Pbv 302, artikelserie i Pansar, del 5 | SPHF
- Pbv 302, artikelserie i Pansar, del 4 | SPHF
- Pbv 302, artikelserie i Pansar, del 10 | SPHF
- Hägglunds & Söner AB