Here we will go over the history, design, performance of the AIM-120 AMRAAM missile. I will only currently cover up to the AIM-120B in detail, but later models will be covered as more information is found… legally.
THE AIR-TO-AIR FORCE MULTIPLIER
In 1976, a document entitled “Joint Service Operational Requirements for an Advanced Tactical Air-to-Air Missile” was published. The study, written by Air Force and Navy pilots, maintenance, logistics, and supply officers, discussed the operation problems associated with air-to-air weapons employment during the Vietnam war. It also addressed and identified the requirements for an advanced technology missile to replace the existing and relatively ineffective AIM-7 Sparrow missile.
The document identified six major requirements for the future AMRAAM.
- Able to guide on a target with a high probability of kill while operating in all weather conditions and electronic countermeasure (ECM) environments.
- Easy to use and universally adaptable to all front line fighters.
- Capable of launch-and-leave, thus providing a fighter the opportunity to maneuver against enemy air and ground threats.
- Lighter than the AIM-7 Sparrow allowing a fighter to carry an increased number of missiles.
- Easily maintainable with a high degree of reliability.
From this initial concept, the joint US Air Force / Navy and NATO project came to life. In December 1981, Hughes Aircraft Co. was awarded the contract for full scale development of the AMRAAM. 
More to follow…
I will go over the missile based on configuration to the best of my knowledge using public sources, sources will be noted and usually hyperlinked here, but always at the bottom of the OP.
[P1] Pictured here is the seeker, often this frontal portion is simply referred to as the “antenna”.
The AIM-120 uses an active radar for terminal homing with mid-course updates and inertial guidance. 
(2) Inertial Block
[P1] The inertial reference unit (produced by Northrop) is a strapdown, three axis unit. It has gyros and accelerometers to sense missile movement. Steering commands are processed using information from this unit and sent to the tail section for maneuvers. 
(3) Radar fuse
[P6] A radar based proximity fuse is used in the early AMRAAM.
Part of the warhead unit, “WDU-33/B”. also in the WDU is the FZU-49/B safe-arm fuse device and the Mk44 Mod1 Booster. 
To understand more about how radio-proximity fuses work for fin-stabilized missiles, please reference this document.
(4) Rudder drives
[P5] Controlled by the “Weapons Control Unit” (WCU-11/B) 
These are the tail control surfaces used to maneuver the missile.
(5) Command line receiver antenna
[P7] The command line receiver is used when it is necessary to correct the missile’s trajectory in the midrange. The radar equipment antenna is placed under a radio transparent fairing (length 530 mm, diameter at the base 17V mm), made of ceramic reinforced with fiberglass. 
[P3] Hercules WPU-6/B propulsion unit
This is a boost-sustain type motor for the AIM-120A/B models. 
[P2] WDU-33/B warhead (HE-Frag)
This warhead has approximately 14.66 pounds (6.652kg) of PBX explosive and a fragmentation case. 
(8) Block of electronic equipment
These electronics process the information received by the missile and send information to the control unit or warhead / seeker.
Developmental AIM-120A antenna assembly (Hughes Aircraft Company photo)
Below developmental AIM-120A ECU module, EU cardcage, processor board and IMU.
(9) Transmitter and power supply batteries
(See link above for pictures)
According to the DCS forum, and the BMS Falcon missile performance… the early AIM-120 has a battery life of around 80 seconds. This means the missile can only continue to function for roughly 80 seconds before it is unable to guide towards, or engage targets.
Performances of the various types as outlined in public sources will be compiled to the best of my ability into stat-card-esque configuration to ease comparison with other missiles in the game.
AIM-120A AMRAAM air-to-air missile
AIM-120A “Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile”
 Mass: 326 pounds
 Guidance: ARH+IOG+DL
 Signal: CW
[?] Lock range: unknown
 Launch range: 40 nautical miles
 Maximum speed: 4.0 M
 Maximum overload: 35G
[?] Missile guidance time: unknown
 Explosive type: PBX
 Explosive mass: 14.66 pounds (6.652kg)
Here I will put information being frequently discussed / or what we are looking for in particular regarding possible bug reports and such.
- Battery lifespan 80s??
- Seeker range ??
 AMRAAM - The Air-to-Air Force Multiplier
 Simulation of Impact Induced Detonation of AIM-120
 Aviation Week & Space Technology 1986-04-07: Vol 124 Iss 14
 Hughes AIM-120 AMRAAM (NATO 16 NATIONS)
 Test and Evaluation Trends and Costs or Aircraft one Guided Weapons
 Solid Propulsion Enabling Technologies and Milestones
for Navy Air-launched Tactical Missiles
 From Bombs to Rockets at McGregor, Texas
 AIM-120 AMRAAM - Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile
 Hughes/Raytheon AIM-120 AMRAAM Operations Guide* (eFalcon, sim)
 A compiled List Of Modern Weapons Of the U.S.Inventory
 Fist of the Fleet Association NEWSLETTER
 Yellow Book Rev. 13, 2012
 Korean Study referencing TO-34-16C (with permissions)
 AIM-120 AMRAAM Archives | Air & Space Forces Magazine
 Flight Global over the shoulder AMRAAM
 Sandia-Motorola Project
 Motorola Encryption on AMRAAM
 Motorola processors used in AMRAAM