M60T1 - Well Armed, Well Protected

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M60T Main Battle Tank is extensively modernised M60A1, currently in active service Turkish Armed Forces. Modernisation package developed by Israeli firm IMI and upgrade undertaken by 2nd Main Maintenance Center Command in Turkey between 2007-2009 with IMI supplied kits. Total of 170 M60A1 were upgraded to Sabra Mark II standards and accepted in service as M60T. M60T made its combat debut Fırat Kalkanı Harekâtı (Operation Euphrates Shield) in 2016. Although M60T has shown great success, its shortcomings became evident. In order to increase overall effectiveness and fix those shortcomings, a new modernisation program was launched during 2017 by Presidency of Defence Industries with the experiences gained from Operation Euphrates Shield. Fırat Modernisation Program completed in 2020 with a total of 169 M60T upgraded under designation of M60TM.


M60T1 Main Battle Tank is the latest evolution of combat-proven M60T Main Battle Tank which itself is extensive modernization of M60A1. M60T1 is product of TİYK Modernisation Programme which was initiated shortly after completion of Fırat Modernisation Programme. TİYK Modernisation Programme started to meet demand of Turkish Land Forces to use national fire control system VOLKAN-M instead of foreign-origin fire control system used on M60TM. Under TİYK Modernisation Programme M60T1 was fitted with indigenous fire control system, indigenous command and information system, new crew seats and additional armor.

Scope of Fırat Modernisation Project

Aim of TİYK Modernisation Program is to increase lethality and protection of M60TM main battle tanks with integration of indigenous solutions. Modernisation is undertaken by 2nd Main Maintenance Center Command with cooperation ASELSAN and ROKETSAN. Under TİYK Programme following local sub-system are integrated to M60TM:

VOLKAN-M Fire Control System

VOLKAN-M is a new generation fire control system, developed by ASELSAN under FIRAT Modernisation Project for M60T tanks. However, development process could not be completed before Fırat Modernisation Project’s completion and M60T modernisation completed without VOLKAN-M fire control system. VOLKAN-M brings lethality of M60TM to most modern standards with high resolution Thermal and Day Imagers. Thanks to its interoperability with other sub-systems, VOLKAN-M allows more effective and user friendly interface.

Main Features
• High Day TV Image
• Automatic Target Tracking
• High Resolution Thermal Image
• Interoperability with Other Systems
• Dual-Axis LoS and LoF Stabilisation



EAGLEEYE-15 Gunner’s and Commander’s Periscope

Alongside new VOLKAN-M Fire Control System, newer gunner’s and commander’s periscope EAGLEEYE-15 was also integrated and tested on this testbed as ASELSAN’s 2021 Activity Report mentions.

EAGLEEYE-15 is a modular, compact and cost-effective periscope system designed by ASELSAN. It can be configured as Gunner and/or Commander periscope depending on needs. System comes with LRF, Thermal Sight Unit, Stabilised Sight and Day Camera. Although it was incorporated to M60T tanks in 2021, as Fırat Modernisation was completed in 2020 it is likely for separate program. ASELSAN’s 2021 Annual Report mentions its integration as modernisation of M60T tanks, which is after Fırat program. This makes me conclude that testing of EAGLEEYE-15 was completed with VOLKAN-M FCS.

Main Features
• Thermal Imager
• Daylight Camera
• Laser Range Finder
• Stabilised Head Mirror Periscope



ASELSAN’s Annual Report Mentioning EAGLEEYE-15/100 Integration to Single Prototype



ROKETSAN Explosive Reactive Armor

Main Features
• Full Protection Against Small Caliber Rounds Up to 30mm
• Enhanced Protection Against Tandem-Charged Chemical Threats
• Enhanced Kinetic Protection Against 105mm, 120mm and 120mm APFSDS Rounds

Blast Attenuating Crew Seats

Blast Attenuating Crew Seats

T-KALIP’s blast attenuating crew seats to enhance protection of crew in case of IED or mine explosion.

Main Features
• 5 Point Safety Belt
• Easy Adoption for Different Crew Use
• Blast Attenuation Performance STANAG 4569/AEP55 Standards

TKKMBS Tank Command Control Information System

I could not find to verify which Tank Command Control Information System used on M60T1, though I believe it is highly likely ASELSAN but it might be STM’s system too.

STM Defence Technology’s BUKAN Battlefield Command Control Information System

ASELSAN BATUR Battle Management and Unit Tracking System

General Specifications

M60T Main Battle Tanks received extensive upgrade in terms of protection and situational awareness yet firepower was stood pretty much the same except for addition of SARP Remote Controlled Weapon Station. Right after completion of Fırat Modernisation Programme, Turkish Land Forces issued a request to change Israeli-origin KNIGHT III Fire Control System with indigenous VOLKAN-M Fire Control System. Integration of VOLKAN-M started under TİYK Modernization Programme to replace ageing KNIGHT III Fire Control System as well as to decrease dependency on foreign sub-system. VOLKAN-M Fire Control System offers high lethality with ability to operate with other sub-system, new day camera, new thermal sighting system and increased first-hit capabilities. Other than Fire Control System, M60T1’s main and secondary armament stays the same with M60TM. Main armament is trusty MG253 120mm L/44 smoothbore gun complimented with one 7.62mm co-axial machine-gun and 12.7mm heavy machine-gun on SARP Remote Controlled Weapon Station.

SARP Remote Controlled Weapon Station

SARP is a compact, remotely operated stabilized weapon platform with high-precision surveillance capabilities and superb firepower. It can be integrated onto vehicles or fixed posts to provide firepower against air, ground, and asymmetric threats. SARP has ability to mount 7,62mm machine-gun, 12.7mm heavy machine-gun and 40 mm automatic grenade launcher in accordance with the operational needs.

Main Features
• Laser Range Finder
• Day and Night Imaging
• Gyro Aided Stabilization
• Automatic Target Tracking
• Automatic Ballistic Calculation
• Shoot-On-the-Move Capability for Stationary and Moving Targets

Brochure with More Information



M60T1 - 5

Mobility of M60T1 is the only aspect which has not seen an upgrade. M60T1 is still powered by MTU MT 881 KA-501 diesel engine and coupled with RENK 304S transmission system. M60T1 is likely got an slight hit in mobility department due to all the additional new sub-system but since weight of ROKETSAN’s armor is unknown, there may not be that big of difference in terms of mobility between M60T1 and M60T/TM.


M60T1 is said to receive “additional” armor supplied by ROKETSAN in ASELSAN’s news post. There is no visible evidence to support additional armor on M60T1 in physical form. Though there is no additional armor, both ROKETSAN’s brochure states ROKETSAN has developed new ERA to be integrated to M60T/TM Main Battle Tanks. Considering both sources mentioning some sort of armor upgrade, it is fair to assume that reactive elements of M60TM is replaced with ROKETSAN’s own. Based on performance information on ROKETSAN’s brochure, it is safe to say M60T1 has even higher protection values than already well-armored M60TM. As M60TM already received spall-liner, protection of crew incase of penetration is also increased.

ROKETSAN’s Brochure About ERA Designed for M60T

ASELSAN’s Website Mentioning “Additional” ROKETSAN Armor

ROKETSAN’s new generation Explosive Reactive Armor is a state-of-the-art reactive armor solution. ROKETSAN’s tests has showed that ROKETSAN ERA is immune against most of the contemporary CE threats including RPGs, ATGMs and HEAT rounds. In the tests ERA has stopped PG-7VR tandem-charged RPG with penetration power of 600mm behind-the-ERA penetration with minimal residual penetration and completely stopped 125mm HEAT/HEATFS rounds. Alongside image proofs, ROKETSAN’s production catalogue states that ERA is immune against PG-7VR, KORNET-E, TOW-2A Konkurs and other contemporary tandem-charged chemical threats.

Number for protection against Kinetic threats is not really given in any documents, so it is kind of hard to come up with any numbers. In the brochure it is simply stated that ROKETSAN ERA (specially used on Badger) offers enhanced protection against 105mm, 120mm and 125mm APFSDS rounds. It is also stated in the same brochure that ERA offers proaction against small caliber rounds up to 30mm. So it is safe to assume ROKETSAN ERA would not be triggered by small arms smaller than 30mm.

Performance of ROKETSAN ERA

Performance of ROKETSAN ERA Used On Badger Armor Package

  • Dimensions and Weight
    • Mass: +59 Tons
    • Length: 6.9 m
    • Width: 3.6 m
    • Height: 4.1 m
  • Armament
    • Main Armament: IMI MG253 120 mm L/44 Smoothbore Cannon
    • Secondary Armament:
      ∙ 7.62mm Co-Axial Machine Gun
      ∙ SARP Remotely Controlled Weapon Station Mounted M2HB 12.7mm Heavy Machine-Gun
    • Ammunition Capacity
      ∙ 42 120mm Cannon Rounds
      ∙ 10,000 7.62mm Co-Axial Machine Gun
      ∙ 3,200 12.7mm Machine-Gun Rounds ˀ
  • Mobility
    • Engine: MTU MT 881 KA-501 Diesel Engine, 1000 Horsepower
    • Transmission: RENK 304S Automatic Transmission, 4 Forward, 4 Reverse
    • Suspension: Torsion Bar
    • Maximum Speed: 55 km/h
    • Power to Weight: >17 hp/t
  • Protection
    • Armor:
      ∙ Reactive Armor
      ∙ Passive Armor
      ∙ Slat/Cage Armor
    • Active Protection System: PULAT
    • Smoke Grenades: 8x
  • Accessories
    • Night Sight
      ∙ Gunner
      ∙ Commander
      ∙ Driver
    • Thermal Sight
      ∙ Gunner
      ∙ Commander
      ∙ Driver
    • Laser Range Finder
    • Laser Warning Reciever
    • Automatic Target Tracking
    • See-Before-Seen Capability
    • Telescopic Periscope System
    • 360° Close Range Surveillance System
    • Hunter-Killer Capacity (Commander’s Override)

Implementation to War Thunder

M60T1 should be reserved Turkish Ground Forces Tech Tree. M60T1 with increased protection and better situational awareness capabilities and as well as PULAT APS would be potent high tier additional to Turkish Ground Forces Tech Tree. With new additions, M60T1 would be perfect fit for 10.7 - 11.3 battle rating.

Additional Photos


M60T1 - 12

M60T1 - 5


Delivery Ceremony of M60T1




Sabra (tank) - Wikipedia

Army Guide



Sabra (M60T) main battle tank, 2005

Sabra (M60T)


M60 Tank Modernization Project




Welcome to Seiler Precision Manufacturing - Seiler Precision Manufacturing

Welcome to Seiler Precision Manufacturing - Seiler Precision Manufacturing

https://www.deagel.com/Armored Vehicles/M60T Sabra/a003505

https://www.deagel.com/Sensor Systems/CITV/a001643

TV/VVS-2 Zırhlı Araç Gece Görüş Periskobu – Transvaro - In Turkish

Siyah Gri Beyaz: M60T’nin Ateşle İmtihanı ve Başika Saldırısının Düşündürdükleri - In Turkish

M60T (Sabra) ve M60TM Modernizasyonları - TRMilitary - In Turkish

IMI’s M60 Upgraded Brochure

Modern Israeli Tanks and Infantry Carriers 1985–2004 (New Vanguard Book 93) - Marsh Gelbart

Зарубежное военное обозрение №7 2010 (Foreign military review No. 7 2010) - Page 64, CITV/Commander’s Override



PULAT: Active Protection System | English Defence News

Modernised M60Ts now named M60TM | savunmahaber.com

M60TM Tankı Modernizasyonu – Millisavunma.com


M60TM main battle tank

M60 Serisi Tankların Modernizasyonu, Atış Kontrol Sistemlerinin Testleri ile Devam Ediyor | savunmahaber.com

M60TM tankı yerli VOLKAN-M atış kontrol sistemi ile atışlı testlere başladı | DefenceTurk

M60T Tanklarının Modernizasyonu Tamamlandı! - Defence Turkey Magazine

M60TM tanklarına üst düzey yetenekler kazandırılıyor

M-60TM’ye VOLKAN-M Entegrasyonu Başlıyor | SavunmaSanayiST

ASELSAN’dan M60 Atış Kontrol Sistemi ve Elektrikli Top ve Kule Takat Sistemi | DefenceTurk

M60(T) Tank Atış Kontrol Sistemi | DefenceTurk

ASELSAN Elektrikli Top ve Kule Takat Sistemi - ETKTS | DefenceTurk

IDEF 2021: Aselsan has developed M60TM modernized version of M60 tank with PULAT APS | IDEF 2021 News Official Online Show Daily Media Partner | Defence security exhibitions 2021 show daily news category | Defense & Security Exhibitions Archives

Anasayfa - ASELSAN


İlk 40 adet Akkor Pulat’ın entegrasyonuna başlandı | DefenceTurk

Anasayfa - ASELSAN

- Spall-Liner

Seiler Precision Manufacturing | Full-Service Contract Manufacturing. - M36 Gunner’s Sight


ASELSAN BATUR Battle Management and Unit Tracking System

STM Defence Technology’s BUKAN Battlefield Command Control Information System

T-KALIP Blast Attenuating Crew Seats

Roketsan zırh çözümlerinde önemli gelişmeler | DefenceTurk

STM Defence Technology’s TANKOM
TANKOM - Taktik Saha Komuta Kontrol Bilgi Sistemi | DefenceTurk

ROKETSAN Reactive and Passive Armor Performance
ROKETSAN Ballistic Protection Center Brochure

EAGLEEYE-15/100 Information
ASELSAN 2021 Annual Report


+1 for a future Turkish tree


Well made post but I don’t see the need for another modernized M60 right now but maybe later on.

20 t80’s ingame, i guess another m60 wont hurt no one
+1 i hope it get added for USA too.

Hmm lets count T80’s
(Swedish) U
292( if you count that)

Does not seem like 20 to me 6 or 7 at most rn.

There are 6 or 7 M60s (if you count 120S as 7th)

Well considering I’ve never intended it to be in US tree it should be fine but I get where you are coming from.

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The best M60 even got better! +1 for Turkish Tech Tree!


Seems like a lovely and unique addition to a future Turkish TT, + 1


another one won’t hurt no one :)


+1 for the Turkish Tech Tree

1 Like