Leopard 1T (1A1) - Top Notch Precision

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Leopard 1


Leopard 1 entered Turkish Armed Forces inventory between 1982-1993. First batch of Leopard 1s delivered to Turkey in 1982, consisting of 77 Leopard 1A3s, and completed in 1984. Six year later, deliveries of second batch started at 1990, with 150 units of Leopard 1A3. After completion of Leopard 1A3 deliveries, Turkey bought Germany’s second Leopard 1A1 and 1A1A4s in two batches of 85 units. Turkish Leopard 1A3s were fitted with EMES-12A3 fire control systems and had welded-turrets. Those 1A3 were designated in Germany as Leopard 1A3TU while Turkish designation was Leopard 1A3T1. Though Leopard 1A1/1A1A4s did not received special designation. Most of the 1A1s and few 1A3s were upgraded with VOLKAN Fire Control System.

Leopard 1T (1A1)

In 2002, a modernisation effort to enhance Leopard 1’s firepower was initiated. Total of 171 Leopard 1s were upgraded with ASELSAN’s new generation VOLKAN Fire Control System to increase tanks overall lethality, situational awareness and ease of operation. Modernisation carried on 162 Leopard 1A1/1A1A4s and only on 9 Leopard 1A3T1s. This suggestion is focused on Leopard 1T based Leopard 1A1/1A1A4.

Scope of Modernisation

VOLKAN Fire Control System integration modernisation program’s aim was to increase lethality and situational awareness of Leopard 1s with new generation fire control system, new sights and periscopes. Integrated technologies under this program as follows:

  • VOLKAN Fire Control System

VOLKAN Fire Control System is new generation fire control system designed and developed by ASELSAN to increase and bring lethality of Leopard 1s to be par with Third Generation Main Battle Tank.

Main Features

• Night Imager

• Thermal Imager

• Line-of-Sight Stabilisation

• Automatic Target Tracking

• Direct Optic and TV Sighting

• Target Detection, Identification and Recognition Capability

  • Gunner’s Periscope

Main Features

• Night Imager

• Laser Range Finder

• Gyroscopic Stabilisation

• Direct Optic and TV Sighting

• Second Generation Thermal Imager (8-12 µm Operating Band)

  • Commander’s Control Unit

Main Features

• Mirrored View of Gunner’s Night and Thermal Imager

• Independent View of Gunner’s Night and Thermal Imager

  • Driver’s Periscope

Main Features

• Night Imager

• Second Generation Uncooled Thermal Imager (8-12 µm Operating Band)

  • Muzzle Reference System

Main Features

• Aim Correction and Adjustment

• Day and Night Operability

General Specifications

Leopard 1T retains original Royal Ordnance L7A3 105 mm L/52 tank cannon as its main armament. Although the main armament stays the same, lethality of Leopard increased substantially with ASELSAN’s VOLKAN Fire Control System. VOLKAN offers thermal and night vision to both Gunner, through stabilised head mirror periscope, and Commander, through Commander’s Control Unit. Although Commander does not have independent sight, Commander’s Control Unit allows commander to see through Gunner’s Sight independently. Firepower of Leopard 1T supplemented with 7.62mm co-axial and anti-air machine-gun.


Leopard 1T carries original power pack of original 1A1/1A3, 830 horsepower MTU MB 838 Ca M-500 Diesel Engine coupled with ZF 4HP250 transmission system. Assuming additional systems increased weight, Leopard 1T would have less then original 19.5 hp/t, though difference would not be substantial.


Armor protection received no upgrade whatsoever. Leopard 1T has 20-70mm RHAe hull armor and 52-62mm CHA armor turret armor with additional 10-35mm screens.


  • Dimensions and Weight
    • Mass: 42.4 Tons
    • Length: 7.9 m
    • Width: 3.4m
    • Height: 2.6m
  • Armament
    • Main Armament: Royal Ordnance L7A3 105 mm L/52
    • Secondary Armament
      ∙ MG3 7.62mm Co-Axial Machine Gun
      ∙ MG3 7.62mm Machine Gun
    • Ammunition Capacity
      ∙ 60 Tank Rounds
      ∙ 4400 7.62mm Co-Axial Machine Gun
      ∙ 2000 7.62mm Machinegun Rounds
  • Mobility
    • Engine: MTU MB 838 Ca M-500 Diesel Engine, 830 Horsepower
    • Transmission: ZF 4HP250 Automatic Transmission, 4 Forward, 3 Reverse
    • Suspension: Torsion Bar
    • Maximum Speed: 65 km/h
    • Power to Weight: 19.5 hp/t ˀ
  • Protection
    • Hull Armor
      ∙ 25-70mm RHAe
    • Turret Armor
      ∙ 52-65mm CHA
      ∙ 10-35mm Additional Spaced Screens
    • Active Protection System: None
    • Smoke Grenades: 8x
  • Accessories
    • Night Sight
      ∙ Gunner
      ∙ Commander
      ∙ Driver
    • Thermal Sight
      ∙ Gunner
      ∙ Commander
    • Laser Range Finder
    • Automatic Target Tracking

Implementation to War Thunder

Leopard 1T (1A1) should be reserved for future Turkish Tech Tree’s research section as it was the most numerous version, while 1A3 could be added as premium since there was only 9 examples of it. Considering Leopard 1T based on 1A1 and 1A1A4 would be completely same vehicle, it would be redundant addition, but 1A1A4 version could find its way into tech tree as either folders vehicle under Leopard 1T (1A1) or as event vehicle. It would be placed right after regular Leopard 1A1 with 9.0BR at Rank VI. Gameplay wise it would be similar to regular Leopard 1A1, but with better sighting systems.

Additional Photos


Leopard 1T Modernisation

ASELSAN’s Video About Leopard 1T


The last Leopard-1 Tank modernized by ASELSAN - Defence Turkey Magazine