KNM OSLO - Frigate

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KNM OSLO - Frigate

Pictrue is taken in 1966, This is the first and original variant

BUILDING SITE: Marinens Hovedverft, Horten Norway
LAUNCHED: 17 January 1964




2x US 3" double L50 cannons
1x3 Kongsberg Terne III AU mortars

Picture of the model, showing it’s design and details

UPGRADE 1 1975


2x US 3" double L50 cannons
6x Kongsberg Penguin MK 2 SSM Rockets
1x8 NATO Sea Sparrow SAM
1x3 Kongsberg Terne III AU mortars
6x 32.4 cm Torpedoes Anti submarine

Picture of the model, showing it’s design and details

UPGRADE 2 1990


2x 76mm cannons
1x 40mm Bofors cannon
2x 20mm Rheinmetall cannons
4x Kongsberg Penguin MK 2 SSM Rockets
1x8 NATO Sea Sparrow SAM
1x3 Kongsberg Terne III AU mortars
6x 32.4 cm Torpedoes Anti submarine

Picture of the model, showing it’s design and details

Displacement: 1760 ton (ARMED)
Hull: Steel
Length: 96.6m
Width: 11.2m
Depth: 5.5m
Crew: 151 men

DeLaval Ljungstrøm double reduction gear turbines 1 propeller
Power: 20.000 AHK
Speed: 25 knots

1972: Participated in NATO’s Standing Atlantic Force 1972. -77, -80, -87, -92
1975: Rebuilt and equipped with Seasparrow and Penguin rockets
1990: Rebuilt into more timely and impactful weapon systems
1994: Shipwrecks with Marstein lighthouse 24 January
1995: Dismantled in Stavanger

The frigate Oslo was christened at the launch by Princess Astrid, Mrs Ferner. There was a big celebration in Horten on the occasion of the event, where His Majesty King Olav was also present. Oslo was taken over by the Norwegian Navy on 29 January 1966, and on the occasion of the handover, the construction workshop had calculated that a million working hours were behind the delivery.

Of these, a quarter had agreed to planning and construction. in the years that followed the takeover, Oslo underwent several conversions, most recently in 1990, and the frigate appeared as a modern warship with timely and effective weapon systems. but the frigate was to meet a tragic fate. On 24 January 1994 at 16:00 Oslo Haakonsvern left to conduct exercises in the sea outside the Marssteinen lighthouse. The vessel then had a crew of 114 men. At 18:00 the vessel reported that it had suffered engine failure and drifted south, and about half an hour later the frigate drifted on a reef and came to rest. One of the ship’s officers was killed in the collision. The next day in the morning, Oslo was pulled off the ground, and the towboat Lars started the tow towards a safer place where the vessel could be grounded and where the damage could be inspected. During the tow, the frigate took on water, and the foreship began to sink, but the tow continued to try to ground the ship in a cove. however, this was not successful, and at 11:27 Oslo disappeared into the depths outside Steinneset in Austevoll.

On 24 April, Oslo was raised, placed on a barge from Ødegaard Bergning, and towed to Haakonsvern. The vessel had sustained such extensive damage that it was decided to be condemned and cut up during 1994

during the war, Norway in England had built up a significant navy with help from the USA and England. a large part of these, and further other surplus vessels from the war, were transferred to Norway on favorable terms at the end of the war and in the first post-war years. that Norway had given up its traditional policy of neutrality and chosen to join NATO opened the door for material support and infrastructure support. among other things, in the early 50s we had no less than five ex-British destroyers and four ex-British frigates. later in the 50s we took over three more war frigates from Canada. The NATO alliance was based on the principle that “each individual member state builds up a defense organization that is so strong that it will not be possible for an attacker to overrun the country before it can get help from the other member states and before it can mobilize its own resources.” . The problem was that our first post-war structure was both too extensive, too uneven and too heavy and cumbersome and consequently too expensive. it gradually became clear that we had to bet on an invasion defence. some believed that the backbone here still had to be large fighters, which could meet an invasion force on the open sea, and in that connection the takeover of American Fletcher fighters was considered. However, the Navy’s Regulatory Council believed that we should primarily have a coastal navy, with small and many weapon platforms that could utilize Norway’s coastal waters. privately, Norway had received confirmation that the USA would, under certain conditions, share the costs of the realization of a new construction programme. this led to the Fleet Plan. when this was finally accepted by the Storting in December 1960, it provided space for a total of 56 vessels, including five frigates and five corvettes. The total framework was set at NOK 840 million and it was to be implemented within 7 years. It was later agreed that the US would cover 50%, with the exception of the mine vessels, so we were able to replace our entire navy within a short time. however, invasion defense was still the main task, and this was emphasized by simultaneously merging the Coastal Artillery and the Navy into the Navy. Whereas previously only about 30% of the vessels had been manned, the new concept in principle required that all vessels, except those undergoing maintenance, should be manned. in the same period we moved the main base and the Naval Academy to Bergen

The frigates were primarily to protect supplies across the North Sea, while the corvettes were to protect traffic along the Norwegian coast. The frigates had to be able to operate offshore in all conditions and do at least 25 knots. To save time and money, they wanted to build on an existing vessel concept. during planning, drawings and specifications had been borrowed from the USA both for the diesel-powered Claude Jones class and for the steam turbine-powered Dealy class. it was finally chosen to base the Dealy class, partly because the less noisy turbine machinery, and a large propeller would give an advantage in relation to anti-submarine operations, which was a main purpose for the frigates. Because the Dealy class was somewhat more expensive than the plant numbers, one had to drop from five to two corvettes to comply with the budget framework. The frigates therefore also had to be given protection of traffic along the coast as one of their main tasks

As anti-submarine weapons, American Mk-44 torpedoes in two triple cannons were chosen as well as the Norwegian-produced Terne system for short-range engagement. The torpedoes could also be dropped from a helicopter, and space was therefore made for a helicopter behind the chimney. The choice of the Terne system on the front deck also meant that the hull had to be reinforced compared to the Dealy class. as quick-firing guns against aircraft and vessels, double US 3" guns were chosen from American surplus stocks. fire control equipment with surface, air warning and target tracking capacity was chosen from Dutch HOSA, and precisely the HOSA cupola became a characteristic of the Oslo class. for the Terne system, Norway wanted to use sonars from Simrad, but because the search sonar had not been fully developed, the Americans demanded that an off-the-shelf product (SQS36) be used. The Navy’s Hovedverft was commissioned to build the first one, which at the same time would provide a basis for competition for the delivery of the next four in a series. a a number of foreign and several Norwegian stakeholders competed for the main delivery. it was accepted that the assignment could go to Norwegian industry if the offer was technically and financially sound. and on this basis the main delivery was also given to the Marinens Hovedverft

UPGRADE 1- Model picture (
Due to the development of missiles, it had already been understood in the Fleet Plan that a high combat power could be maintained on relatively smaller vessels. over the 1960s there was a major development on the missile side. Norway itself developed a surface-to-surface missile (PENGUIN) adapted to smaller vessels. Norway also participated in the development of a surface-to-air missile (SEA SPARROW). it was well known that the frigates lacked effective air defence, but the tight time and financial framework for construction did not allow new weapons to be introduced at the same time. From 1973, both Sea Sparrow and Penguin were tested and the frigates were continuously upgraded, but KNM Trondheim as the first in 1975. At the same time, a new air warning radar was obtained. The Sea Sparrow implementation meant that one had to build in the allocated space for a helicopter, which had only been used for this purpose in exceptional cases.

UPGRADE 2 - Model picture (
The second main update of the frigates was carried out from 1985-90 and gave the vessels a significant life extension. Among other things, they got a new hull-mounted sonar (Thompson), and in addition a Canadian towed sonar mounted on the aft deck. due to the weight load, the double 3" cannon was also replaced with a 40 mm Bofors L/70 anti-aircraft gun in a light protective cupola (GPR). The HOSA was replaced with the MSI 3100, where all sensors except the Sea Sparrow were integrated. one also got new Anti-Submarine torpedoes (sting Ray), Rapid-firing 20mm Rheinmetall guns and upgraded communications equipment (LINK 11). What was not done about, and which was eventually considered a main problem, was the propulsion machinery with unstable steam boilers

Although our strong MBT weapon and our UVB weapon have been just as important in relation to the invasion defense task, the frigates have always been considered the Navy’s flagship. Steadily they have walked up and down our long coast and marked their presence and signaled their will to assert sovereignty. in the cities where they have spent their week-end stays and had their pån ships, this has usually been seen as an event. during the Cold War the crews had neither the time nor the opportunity to go home during the cruises. It had a positive effect on the environment and cohesion, but was of course stressful for family life. thousands of young Norwegian men, and eventually also a number of young women, have served on board over the years. they have endured cramped living conditions, rough seas, hard exercises and long shifts. in return, they have experienced camaraderie, cooperation and self-development and they have seen large parts of Norway and, as a rule, part of the rest of the world.

Already from its establishment in 1967, the Oslo class has been a permanent feature of NATO’s standing Atlantic force, STANAVFORLANT. This usually resulted in three months of intense exercises, even abroad and international fun. even though Norway has been a little brother in this company, we have not distanced ourselves, either on the operational or the social level. The Oslo-class has also regularly taken part in other shorter NATO exercises, such as the Joint maritime Course in British waters. it is also the Oslo class that has been sent on major international representation missions, such as New York in 1976, Murmansk in 1971 and during the D-Dagsmarkeingen in 1984, when Admiral Skule Storheil himself embarked on KNM Narvik for the occasion.

Although the Navy attaches great importance to safety, it would be strange if, over so many years and nautical miles, accidents did not also occur. until 1994, the Oslo class had flown along. the most serious accidents were some groundings with material damage and a fire at KNM Narvik in 1982, where the engine crew saved themselves at the last moment. luck left the Oslo class on a stormy January day in 1994, with KNM Oslo’s machine breakdown and subsequent grounding and sinking, when unfortunately one was also lost, an officer.

With the fall of the Wall, the end of the Cold War and the subsequent relatively tighter economic times, the training pattern has become more base-oriented and the presence in Northern Norway has decreased. in return, there have been new challenges in peacekeeping operations, FM operations and PFP operations (partnership for peace). by constituting a registered force contribution to NATO’s reaction force, the frigates also play a security policy role.

NATO Sea Sparrow SAM


Mass: 230 kg
Length: 3.7 m
Diameter: 20 cm
Warhead: Annular blast fragmentation warhead, 41 kg
Detonation mechanism: Proximity fuzed, expanding rod, with a 8.2m kill radius
Engine: Hercules MK-58 solid-propellant rocket motor
Wingspan: 1.02 m
Operational range: 19 km
Maximum speed: 4,256 km/h
Guidance system: Semi-active radar homing
Launch platform: Ship

Kongsberg Penguin MK 2 SSM Rockets


Here s an article from FFI- Forsvarets Forsknings Institutt (Norwegian Defense Research Institute)

(The Norwegian penguin can fly)

Type: littoral anti-ship missile
Place of origin/developed and designed: Norway
Service history: In service 1972-present
Manufacturer: Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace

Mass: 385 kg (MK2)
Length: 3.0 m (MK2)
Diameter: 28 cm
Warhead: 120 kg (MK2)
Detonation mechanism: delay fuze
Engine: Solid propellant sustainer
Wingspan: 1.4 m (MK2)
Operational range: 34+ km (MK2)
Flight altitude: sea skimming
Maximum speed: high subsonic
Guidance system: pulse-laser, passive IR (MK2)
Launch platform: naval ships, helicopters (MK2)

Kongsberg Terne III AU


Technical Data for Terne III rocket
Length: 1.97 m
Diameter: 20 cm
Weight: 120 kg
Speed: ???
Range: 5000 m
Propulsion: Solid-fueled rocket; 52 kN
Warhead: Depth charge

Terne is a Norwegian anti-submarine weapon system, which uses rocket-thrown depth charges. It was developed by the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment in cooperation with the U.S. Navy in the late 1950s. The U.S. Navy used the Terne III system on a few destroyers in the early 1960s, but phased out the system after only a few years of use. The Norwegian Navy used Terne for many years after

Terne launcher!

VIDEOS - Showing the KNM Oslo and it’s crew in action (From 13:00 and onwards)


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Kongsberg Terne

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