Would you like to see Anti-Aircraft Cruiser, Maya (1944) in game?
- Yes, for tree
- Yes, for premium
IJN Takao Class Heavy Anti-Aircraft Cruiser, Maya (1944)
Japanese “Maya” heavy cruiser (class “Takao”) of the Imperial Navy during sea trials after modernization.
On the catapult of the “Maya” cruiser the E13A1 “Jake” float-type reconnaissance aircraft.
Sub Category: Heavy cruiser
Consequences of the First World War. Washington Naval Treaty of 1922
Disagreements between Japan, the United States and England that arose after the end of the First World War led to an arms race. More and more heavily armed battleships were being designed. The traditional heavily armored, slow battleships and huge Lexington-class battlecruisers did not sit well with the United States, since the Panama Canal was not designed for ships with a displacement of 40,000 tons and required expensive reconstruction. The performance characteristics of Japan’s new battlecruisers, which were superior in armament and armor to their foreign counterparts, also aroused strong fear in Europe and the United States. Europe also had big problems with the Navy. England, which had a large number of obsolete dreadnoughts, spent a lot of money to maintain them and at the same time built new ships.
The political situation in the world was also problematic. The First World War led to a change in the economic and political balance. England gradually lost its position as a world leader. Playing the role of supplier, the United States has developed its economy. They produced 85% of the world’s cars, controlled 20% of the world’s gold, 50% of coal, 60% of aluminum, 66% of oil, while the country’s population was only 6% of the world’s population. In addition, the US has become the world’s lender. The debt of England amounted to 4.7 billion dollars, France - 3.8, and Italy - 1.9.
The second country to take advantage of World War I was Japan. Between 1914 and 1918, Japanese industry grew and forced British and American-made goods out of the Chinese markets. Goods from Japan even penetrated the markets of South and Central America, which frightened America.
All this heated up the situation in the Far East. In order to defuse the current situation and satisfy the interests of the leading maritime countries, it was decided to hold a disarmament conference in Washington. The result was the signing on February 6, 1922 of the Washington Naval Treaty between the United States, Britain, France, Italy and Japan.
The main positions of the Washington Naval Treaty were:
- The US is halting construction of 15 new battleships and decommissioning 17 old ones. England stops the construction of the planned ships and decommissions 19 old ones. Japan stops building 15 ships and decommissions 11 old ones;
- In the future, the tonnage of the liner fleets of Japan, the USA and England should be in the ratio 3:5:5;
- It is forbidden to build battleships with a displacement of more than 35,000 tons and armament of more than 406 mm guns;
- 2 battleships can be rebuilt into aircraft carriers instead of being scrapped (displacement no more than 33,000 tons);
- It is forbidden to build new aircraft carriers with a displacement of more than 27,000 tons;
- On aircraft carriers, it was forbidden to install weapons larger than 203 mm, more than 10 guns with a caliber of 128-203 mm (on aircraft carriers with a displacement of 27,000 tons, more than 8 guns with a caliber of 128-203 mm).
- The first generation of “Washington” cruisers
- After signing the Washington Naval Treaty, which limited the number of cruisers and aircraft carriers, Japan decided to strengthen its fleet with 10,000 ton cruisers, which could be built without restrictions on tonnage and number. According to the plan, developed in 1923, it was necessary to build at least 40 heavy cruisers with a displacement of 10,000 tons, from which to form 10 divisions of 4 ships.
On June 6, 1922, the Naval General Staff commissioned Yuzuru Hirage to develop a cruiser with a displacement of 10,000 tons and armed with 203 mm guns. Taking a hull from an Aoba-class cruiser as a base, Yuzuru Hiraga presented a preliminary plan of the ship to the General Staff on June 3, 1922. After a long discussion between Yuzuru Hiraga and the General Staff, the following requirements were set for the future cruiser:
Cruising range of 8,000 nautical miles (the General Staff originally planned 10,000 miles).
Installation of an armored anti-torpedo bulkhead and boules.
Protective armor capable of withstanding hits of 152 mm projectiles at a right angle and 203 mm at a sharp one;
Ten 203 mm guns in five turrets;
Anti-aircraft armament of six 120-mm guns;
Four twin fixed 610 mm torpedo tubes, later type 12 built-in;
Two seaplanes and one catapult;
The maximum speed is 35.5 knots.
Most of all there were questions about the installation of torpedoes, since Hiraga was categorically against it. In his opinion, the torpedoes carried more of a threat to the cruiser itself than to its probable enemy.
The design was taken up by the captain of the 3rd rank Kikuo Fijimoto, the project itself was led by Yuzuru Hirage. On August 25, 1923, the plan was finally approved and construction began on the first generation of “Washington” Myōkō-class heavy cruisers.
Design and construction
The construction of the next four heavy cruisers was included in the new shipbuilding program, which was approved by Minister of the Navy Kakuichi Murakami and Chief of Staff Gentaro Yamashichi. The new Minister of Marine Takeshi Takarabe, replacing Kakuichi Murakami, presented this program on September 13, 1924 in Parliament. However, Parliament refused to finance the construction of cruisers. The adoption of a positive decision was not facilitated by the fact that on December 18, 1924, US President Calvin Coolidge announced the suspension of the construction of 6 out of 8 heavy cruisers planned under the “first cruiser bill” (USS Pensacola and USS Salt Lake City were already under construction). Then Takarabe turned to the Ministry of Finance with a program to replace 49 ships sent for scrap with 43 new ones. The program also included the construction of 4 new cruisers instead of the outdated armored cruisers IJN Tone, IJN Chikuma, IJN Hirado, IJN Yahagi.
The development of the project, at the beginning of 1925, was again taken up by Captain 1st Rank Kikuo Fujimota, who replaced Yujiro Hiragu as head of the basic design department. The General Staff set the following requirements:
- Reservations for artillery cellars must withstand a 203 mm projectile hit at a right angle from a distance of 10 kilometers.
- The armor of the power plant must withstand a projectile hit at a right angle of 152 mm and at an acute angle of 203 mm from a distance of 7-20 km.
- Boules must withstand 1-2 torpedo hits
- Cruising range 8,000 nautical miles.
- Max speed over 33 knots
- The main caliber must have large elevation angles
- Adequate air defenses
- Four twin torpedo tubes on the upper deck
- Three seaplanes Ability to use as a flagship.
Since the already existing Myōkō type met many requirements, it was decided to create a new cruiser based on it. The new project was named “Improved Myōkō” and was prepared by early 1926. Yuzuru Hiraga, who returned from a trip to England, consulted with Kikuo Fujimota and made some changes. The main differences between the new cruiser and the Myōkō class were:
The main caliber was modified and placed in new E2-type turrets, the elevation angle of the guns was increased to 70°;
Enhanced armor for artillery cellars;
Application of “D” steel, aluminum and electric welding;
Two catapults instead of one;
Rotary torpedo tubes on the upper deck.
The first three differences are due to the influence of Yuzuru Hiragi, who, as a result of a trip to England, learned from the chief designer Eustace d’Eincourt about the features of the construction of Kent-class cruisers. The fourth point was due to the fact that the cruisers were supposed to be used as a flagship and placed on them, if necessary, headquarters. The General Staff demanded the fifth difference, relying on intelligence that 2 catapults were installed on American cruisers. And the sailors themselves demanded the sixth change.
Since the charge of torpedoes reached almost 500 kg of explosives, it was decided to take the torpedo tubes to the upper deck and place them on special sponsons. In this case, when a projectile hit, the torpedo explosion dissipated in the air without causing significant damage to the hull.
The project for the construction of four new cruisers was approved and submitted by Takeshi Takaraba to Parliament on October 9, 1926 and was adopted in March 1927. Funds for construction were included in the budgets of 1927 and 1928.
In the 1927 fleet replacement program, the IJN Maya appeared as “Large Type Cruiser No. 7”, after which it was given the name “Class A Cruiser No. 11”. The Maya cruiser received its official name on September 11, 1928, in honor of the mountain in Hyogo Prefecture, where it was built. The order for the construction was received by the private company Kawasaki. The estimated cost of the ship is 28.37 million yen. Laid down on December 4, 1928 (shipyard number 550) at the Kawasaki shipyards, Kobe, in Hyogo prefecture. Due to good funding, the cruiser was built relatively quickly and already on November 8, 1930, it was launched. Sea trials of the new cruiser took place on April 4, 1932 in the Kii Strait, where she showed a maximum speed of 35.0 knots with a power plant power of 133,352 hp. She was fully equipped and entered into the register of the Japanese Imperial Navy on June 30, 1932, after which she was assigned to the naval base in Yokosuka and received the official name IJN Maya.
Modernizations and conversions
Over the years of its existence, Maya has undergone several upgrades.
In 1933, the cruiser was upgraded with fire control devices for the main caliber and wireless communications, and a SUAZO type 91 was installed. And at the end of 1934, an improved steering gear was installed.
Modernization in May-September 1936 was aimed at strengthening the longitudinal strength and the hull. Sheets of steel “D”, 1.3 m wide and 16 mm thick, were riveted on both sides of the keel. In turn, sheets of steel “D” 19 mm thick and 1.2 m wide were riveted to the upper deck. The cargo boom was also replaced with a reinforced one.
From December 8, 1937 to January 14, 1938, Maya underwent modernization, including:
Removal of the auxiliary boiler and its chimney;
Removal of induction turbines, all 4 screws were now used for cruising;
Replacement of two 40-mm anti-aircraft guns with two quadruple 13.2-mm type 93 machine guns;
the upper part of the foremast was shortened, a radio direction finder with an antenna was placed on its platform.
And in the fall of 1940, the main gun barrels were replaced.
The development of the modernization project began in 1937, and in April 1938 it was already approved. According to this plan, the Maya was supposed to be modernized by the middle of 1941. But due to the outbreak of World War II, on November 15, 1940, an order was issued to carry out the 1st phase of expeditionary training, according to which the entire fleet was to be brought into combat condition by June 1941. Since it was no longer possible to carry out the modernization according to the plan, it was decided in the spring of 1941 to carry out at least some work to modernize the Maya:
Adapted type 89 torpedo tubes for firing type 93 torpedoes (16 pieces of ammunition);
An additional improved compressor was installed in the torpedo compartment;
Catapults type No. 2 model 3 were replaced by catapults type No. 2 model 5;
Instead of two Nakajima E8N2 Type 95 and one Kawanishi E7K2 Type 94, the cruiser received two Aichi E13A1 Type 0.
March 19, 1942 “Maya” enters the dry docks of Yokosuka. In the period from March 19 to 28, 1942, instead of quadruple 13.2 mm Type 93 machine guns, two twin 25 mm Type 96 automatic anti-aircraft guns were installed on the Maya.
During the passage of the first military modernization, in the summer of 1943, two twin 25 mm type 96 automatic anti-aircraft guns were installed on Maya, so the number of barrels was 16. At the same time, a new radar No. 21 was installed, capable of detecting a single aircraft from a range of 70 km, and their group from 100 km.
In the autumn of 1943, in response to the increased threat of aviation, it was decided to rebuild the Maya into an air defense cruiser. From December 5, 1943 to April 9, 1944, the following work was carried out in Yokosuka:
Instead of the damaged turret GK No. 3, two twin 127 mm type 89 anti-aircraft guns were installed;
Instead of four 120 mm type 10 anti-aircraft guns, four twin 127 mm type 89 anti-aircraft guns were installed. Thus, their number on the cruiser increased to 8;
Instead of 8 twin ones, 13 triple and 9 single type 96 25 mm automatic anti-aircraft guns were installed, as well as 36 single 13.2 mm type 93 machine guns and two 7.7 mm;
The twin type 89 torpedo tubes were dismantled and replaced with four quadruple type 92;
Two SUAZO Type 91s were replaced by two new Type 94s;
In addition to the two type 95 sighting columns, another one was added on the bridge.
Additionally installed radar number 22 for the detection of surface targets.
All windows on the lower deck and part of the middle deck were welded;
Dismantling of the seaplane hangar;
The anti-aircraft deck was extended to the fourth tower of the Civil Code, a system of rails was installed on it for the movement of seaplanes. The size of the air group was reduced from three to two. The cruiser now housed two triple type 0 seaplanes;
The boules were replaced by enlarged ones, part of the space of which was always filled with steel tubes, and the rest was used for fuel storage or in the counter-flooding system. This made it possible to withstand an explosion of torpedoes with a force of 250 kg of TNT, instead of 200 kg before.
The result of the modernization was an increase in the standard displacement to 13,350 tons (from 2/3 of the reserves - 15,159 tons). The maximum speed was reduced to 34.25 knots. The regular crew increased to 996 people (55 officers and 941 sailors).
At the beginning of 1944, a radar receiver and type 2 infrared communication devices were installed on Maya. And in the summer of 1944, eighteen single 25 mm type 96 automatic anti-aircraft guns were additionally installed (the crew grew from 996 to 1105), as well as an additional radar No. 13. A superheterodyne receiver was installed on radar No. 22 of the 4th modification , which allowed it to be used in a fire control system. Type 92 target course and speed calculators were dismantled.
After the delivery of the ship on June 30, 1932, IJN Maya was assigned to the naval base in Yokosuka. And in the pre-war period, she took part in many maneuvers, exercises and campaigns.
On December 1, 1932, Captain 1st Rank Yamamoto Koki, former captain of the cruiser IJN Naka, took command of the cruiser. Together with IJN Takao, IJN Atago and IJN Chōkai became part of the 4th Cruiser Division.
When firing at a long distance, during the night exercises in April 1933, a large dispersion of the main caliber guns was revealed. Between June 29 and July 5, 1933, IJN Maya, as part of the 4th division, along with IJN Aoba, IJN Kinugasa and IJN Kako (6th division), made a trip to the coast of Taiwan. And in July-August of the same year they went to the southern seas. On August 25, 1933, she took part in the naval parade in Yokohama. In September 1933, the IJN Maya arrived in Yokosuka for modernization. After the work was completed, Yamamoto Koki handed over command to Captain 1st Rank Niimi Masaichi, who had previously commanded IJN Yakumo.
Between February and April 1934, IJN Maya, as part of the 4th Division, took part in a firing exercise off the coast of Kyushu. And in September, together with the 6th division, she visited Ryojun and Qingdao. From October 22 to December 30, IJN Maya underwent a scheduled overhaul and modernization in Yokosuka, as a result of which the cruiser received improved steering. At this time, instead of Niimi Masaichi, who received the rank of Rear Admiral, the captain of the 1st rank, Ozawa Jisaburo, takes command of the ship.
Between March 29 and April 4, 1935, IJN Maya, along with IJN Takao, IJN Atago, IJN Chōkai, IJN Aoba, IJN Kinugasa, and IJN Kako, made a 6-day trek to the shores of Central China. And in August-September, the cruiser participated in the annual fleet maneuvers off the coast of the island of Honshu. After that, on November 15, 1935, IJN Maya and other Takao-class cruisers were transferred to the Yokosuka Protected Area.
From July 9 to September 20, 1936, IJN Maya was once again upgraded, the hull strength was increased by installing additional steel sheets. And on October 29, the cruiser took part in the review of the fleet in Kobe. On December 1, 1936, IJN Maya became part of the 4th Division of the Second Fleet.
From March 27 to April 6, 1937, IJN Maya took part in a 9-day campaign in the Qingdao region, and in August in the Ryojun region. On November 15, Captain 1st Rank Suzuki Yoshio takes command of the ship.
In April 1938, the cruiser took part in a campaign to the shores of South China, and in September-October, together with IJN Chōkai and Mogami-class cruisers, they carried out firing exercises west of Kyushu. After that, they again made a trip to the coast of South China.
In March 1939, the cruiser made a trip to the coast of Northern China, and on April 4, as part of the 4th cruiser division, fired at the radio-controlled target ship IJN Settsu. The dispersion was 330 m at a distance of 18.3 km. On November 15, IJN Maya was transferred to the Yokosuka base as an artillery training ship, returning to the 4th Division only on May 1, 1940.
In February 1941, IJN Maya again made a trip to the coast of South China, and in March took part in exercises near the island of Kyushu. In April and autumn of 1941, in accordance with the order to carry out the 1st phase of expeditionary preparations, the cruiser was docked in Yokosuka. On 20 September, IJN Maya replaced IJN Takao as the flagship of the 4th Cruiser Division.
Involvement in World War II
After the outbreak of World War II, IJN Maya, as part of Admiral Kondo’s fleet, supported the forces of the fleet with long-range fire during operations in Malaya and Borneo.
In February 1942, IJN Maya, along with the cruisers IJN Takao and IJN Atago, transferred to Palau to fight submarines. To do this, cruisers mounted guides for dropping depth charges. And in late February - early March, he took part in the capture of the island of Java. On March 2, IJN Maya, together with IJN Takao, IJN Atago, IJN Arashi and IJN Nowaki, sank two Allied destroyers: the British HMS Stronghold and the American USS Pillsbury. After that, IJN Maya went with IJN Takao to Yokosuka for repairs, during which two twin 25 mm Type 96 automatic anti-aircraft guns were installed on the IJN Maya instead of quadruple 13.2 mm Type 93 machine guns. After the repair, for some time the crew of the cruiser was engaged in combat and political training in the waters of the Metropolis.
In early June 1942, IJN Maya, escorted from the light aircraft carriers IJN Jun’yō and IJN Ryūjō, took part in an operation against the Aleutian Islands, which was carried out to divert American attention from Midway. During this operation, IJN Maya, as part of the fleet of Admiral Kakuta, took part in the attack on Dutch Harbor. When the Americans landed on Guadalcanal, IJN Maya, along with IJN Takao, IJN Atago, IJN Myōkō, and IJN Haguro, came under the command of Admiral Nagumo. Together with Admiral Nagumo’s aircraft carriers, the cruisers engaged the American TF-61 formation in the Battle of the Solomon Islands. And at the end of the Battle of Santa Cruz, the aircraft carrier USS Hornet was sunk.
During the battle at Guadalcanal on November 14, IJN Maya, together with IJN Takao and IJN Kinugasa, fired at Henderson Field airfield from a long distance (firing 866 high-explosive shells at it from the main caliber). Then they were attacked by American aircraft. During this raid, the IJN Maya was rammed by a Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bomber, which detonated 120 mm anti-aircraft artillery shells, killing 37 crew members. After repairs in Yokosuka on January 30, 1943, the cruiser IJN Maya was transferred to the Northern Connection. And on March 27, he took part in the hostilities near the Commander Islands. During the battle, the cruiser expended 904 203 mm shells and 16 torpedoes, damaging the cruiser USS Salt Lake City and the destroyer USS Bailey together with IJN Nachi.
In the summer of 1943, IJN Maya, together with IJN Takao, IJN Atago and IJN Chōkai, headed to Yokosuka, where they underwent the first military modernization. During the modernization, a type 21 radar and built-in installations of 25 mm automatic anti-aircraft guns type 96 were installed on the cruiser. And already in August, after joining at Truk, they took part in the operation of the Combined Fleet in the area of Eniwetok Atoll. On November 5, 1943, while at anchor in Simpson Harbor in Rabaul, the IJN Maya cruiser was attacked by aircraft carriers Task Force 38. A bomb hit the flight deck on fire, killing 17 people and 60 injured.
In the autumn of 1943, in response to the increased threat to aviation, it was decided not to restore the IJN Maya cruiser, but to rebuild it into an air defense cruiser. From December 5, 1943 to April 9, 1944, in Yokosuka, IJN Maya underwent a second modernization, strengthening not only anti-aircraft weapons, but also a number of other equipment. On June 19 - 20, 1944, IJN Maya, along with other Takao-class cruisers, took part in the Battle of Marianne. After that, they underwent the third military modernization.
On October 22, 1944, the First Strike Group, under the command of Vice Admiral Kurita Takeo, consisting of 12 destroyers, 11 heavy cruisers and 5 battleships, passed through the Palawan Strait in Leyte Gulf.
On the morning of October 23, 1944, the ships of the Kurita group passed west of the island of Palawan. Since the Japanese sonars worked well only at low speed, an order was given for all ships to move in a zigzag course at 16 knots. The ships moved in two columns, at a distance of 4,000 meters from the column. On the left side, IJN Atago (flagship with Vice Admiral Kurita on board), IJN Takao, IJN Chōkai and IJN Nagato were in front, behind them, at a distance of about 3,000 meters, were IJN Kumano, IJN Suzuya and IJN Haruna. The right column consisted of IJN Myōkō, IJN Haguro, IJN Maya, IJN Yamato, IJN Musashi, and behind at a distance of 5,850 meters, IJN Tone, IJN Chikuma and IJN Kongō moved. On the left, the main forces were covered by the cruiser IJN Noshiro and 4 destroyers, on the right - 3 destroyers, the cruiser IJN Yahagi and 2 more destroyers. Three destroyers went between the columns of the main forces. The fatal mistake was the absence of destroyers in front of the group in such a formation.
On October 23 at 00:16, the submarines USS Darter (Cmdr. D.H. McClintock) and USS Dace (Cmdr. B.D. Claggett), patrolling the waters off the island of Palawan, detected a large formation at a distance of 30,000 yards (27,500 m). After transferring the coordinates to the headquarters, they go at full speed to intercept. Coming out in front straight ahead of the group, USS Darter and USS Dace plunged to periscope depth. At 05:09 USS Darter moved slowly towards the left column and USS Dace towards the right. At 05:35, after another port turn, USS Darter torpedoed IJN Atago. It was hit by 4 torpedoes with a caliber of 533 mm Mk14 (300 kg of torpex). Hits by all 4 torpedoes, evenly distributed along the entire starboard side, causing flooding of almost all compartments on the starboard side and capsizing the ship. Nine minutes later, at 06:44, IJN Takao was torpedoed. Both Mk14 torpedoes hit the starboard side, causing flooding of KOs No. 4, No. 6 and No. 8, damage to the right propellers and rudders, and fires started. Escorted by the destroyers IJN Naganami and IJN Akishimo, the cruiser was later delivered to Brunei.
At 05:56, the IJN cruiser Maya was torpedoed by the USS Dace. Of the six Mk14 torpedoes fired by the nose tubes, four hit the port side:
- The 1st torpedo hit the area of the chain box (sp. 25);
- The 2nd torpedo hit the base of the GK turret No. 1 (sp. 66);
- the 3rd hit the area of boiler room No. 7 (sp. 182);
- The 4th hit the area of the engine room No. 3 (sp. 240).
Due to the rapid and extensive flooding, the cruiser received a list of 30 ° to the port side. At 06:05 due to strong fires, the ammunition of the turret of the main caliber No. 1 detonates. 117°23’E Commander Ranji Ooe and 335 crew members perished along with the cruiser. Ranji Ooe is promoted to Rear Admiral posthumously. The IJN destroyer Akishimo rescues 769 crew members and transfers them to the IJN battleship Musashi, which was torpedoed the next day. After the death of the battleship IJN Musashi, 635 crew members of the cruiser IJN Maya are rescued by the destroyer IJN Shimakaze. 470 of the 1,105 crew members of the IJN Maya died in this manner.
Launching the cruiser Maya, 1930
IJN Maya 1932
Heavy cruiser Maya, October 21, 1938
- Belt/side - 102/127mm - 102/127 mm.
- Deck - 32-35 mm.
- Traverse - 76-102/76-102 mm. (bow / stern)
- Barbettes - 76 - 127 mm.
- Conning tower - 14-16 mm
- Main caliber armor - 25.4/ 25.4/25.4 mm. forehead / side / rear / roof)
- Tiller compartment - 25-51 mm.
- Crew - 1105
- Standard displacement: 11 370 t
- Full-load displacement: 15 875 t
- Max length: 203,8 m
- Max width: 19,0 m
- Average draft at trial state: 6,57 m
- Main boiler: 4 TZA “Campon”
- Main engine: 12 boilers “Campon Ro Go”
- Power: 130000
- Speed: 35,5 knots
- Catapult-launched aircraft: 1x Reconnaissance Seaplane E13A “Jake” & 2x Reconnaissance Seaplane F1M “Pete”
Modernization at the time of December 1944
- 4х2 - 203 mm/50 (8") 3rd Year Type No. 2
- 6x2 - 127mm 12.7 cm/40 (5") Type 89
- 13x3 - 25 mm/60 (1") Type 96
- 27x1 - 25 mm/60 (1") Type 96
- 4x4 - 610mm Torpedo tubes
Eric Lacroix, Linton Wells II Japanese Cruisers of the Pacific War. — Naval Institute Press. — 1997
S.V. Suliga Japanese heavy cruisers (in two volumes). - Moscow: Galea Print. - 1997.
Jane’s Fighting Ships of World War II.pdf “Jane’s Fighting Ships of World War II” by McCurtie, Francis
THE IMPERIAL JAPANESE NAVY 6 Heavy Cruisers II book Takao, Atago, Chokai
Waldemar Goralski Japanese Heavy Cruiser Takao. — Kagero, 2010. — 31 с. — ISBN 978-83-61220-65-7
Jentsura, Hansgeorg (1976). Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869-1945. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-893-X.
A battle history of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941-1945 by Dull, Paul S
Warships In Action Japanese Heavy Cruise - Wayne Patton