Embraer EMB-312 (T-27 Tucano)

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Embraer EMB-312(T-27 Tucano)

The Embraer 312, also known as the Tucano, was developed and manufactured by the Brazilian company Embraer. It is a turbo-propeller aircraft used for training and light attack purposes and served as the foundational development platform for the Embraer 314 Super Tucano.

Historical Background
The development of the EMB 312, also designated as the T27 by the Brazilian Air Force (FAB), commenced in 1977. This timeframe coincided with a growing demand from the FAB for more modern training aircraft, primarily due to the introduction of new and advanced Mirage III and Northrop F-5E fighter aircraft into service. These newer fighters had relatively lower operating costs compared to the previously used training aircraft. The EMB 312’s maiden flight took place in 1980, and its first delivery occurred in 1983.

Short Tucanos with special Spitfire painting to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Battle of Britain

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In late 1978, the Ministry of Aeronautics formalized a development agreement, officially initiating the project in January 1979. The EMB 312/T27 showcased advanced design elements and several innovative features for its time. Notably, it was the first aircraft developed from scratch with a turboprop engine while retaining the operating characteristics of jet aircraft. Another significant innovation was the incorporation of ejection seats, marking it as the first basic trainer to incorporate this crucial safety feature. The crew was protected beneath a transparent plexiglass canopy, providing excellent visibility during flight.

The inaugural prototype, officially designated as YT-271300, was unveiled at a rollout ceremony on August 19, 1980, coinciding with Embraer’s 11th anniversary, when the aircraft also embarked on its maiden flight. Impressed by the exceptional performance exhibited during the EMB 312’s initial test flights, the Ministry of Aeronautics inked an order with Embraer in October 1980 for 118 aircraft, marking the commencement of serial production.

Subsequently, following a contest held with the cadets of the Air Force Academy (AFA), the aircraft was christened the “Tucano.” The Tucano quickly piqued international interest, leading several nations to commence testing. The initial orders came from Honduras and Egypt. Egypt, in particular, became a licensed production site for the Tucano, serving both its national Air Force and Iraq. This marked Embraer’s inaugural venture into overseas aircraft assembly.

Soon after, the Royal Air Force (RAF) of the United Kingdom unveiled stringent requirements for its future training aircraft, sparking intense military competition. In response, Embraer collaborated with the Irish company Short Brothers PLC, resulting in extensive modifications to the Tucano and the birth of the Tucano Shorts variant, which triumphed in the competition. This victory marked a pivotal milestone in Embraer’s history, garnering significant attention in the international media and prompting the establishment of a third assembly line in Northern Ireland for Tucano Shorts production.

Recognizing a promising business opportunity, Embraer initiated a comprehensive exploration of available options within the aviation market. During that era, the choices were somewhat limited, consisting mainly of jet-powered aircraft or conventional propeller-driven planes retrofitted with turboprop engines. Opting for a turboprop aircraft swiftly emerged as the more fitting choice, primarily due to the economic advantages it offered. This decision held particular significance in the context of the global oil crisis and the subsequent surge in fuel costs, which necessitated more cost-effective training solutions, ultimately extending flight training durations.

In 1977, Embraer crafted its initial proposals for the EMB 312 and presented them to the Ministry of Aeronautics at the time. The Ministry formalized a development agreement toward the close of 1978, officially launching the project in January 1979. The EMB 312, designated as the T-27 by the Brazilian Air Force (FAB), boasted an advanced design for its era and introduced several innovative features that would later become industry standards for basic training aircraft worldwide.

Distinguished as the inaugural training aircraft developed and manufactured as a purpose-built turboprop, it retained operational characteristics akin to jet-powered counterparts. Unlike other training aircraft in the FAB’s inventory, the EMB 312 featured a tandem configuration with staggered seating, positioning the instructor and student along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. The rear seat was elevated, affording the instructor an unobstructed frontal view. This configuration not only reduced the aircraft’s frontal profile but also enhanced cadet adaptation to the environment of a fighter aircraft.

Furthermore, the EMB 312 introduced another pioneering aspect by incorporating ejection seats, setting a precedent as the first basic turboprop trainer to feature this vital safety element. The crew enjoyed protection beneath a single-piece transparent plexiglass canopy, carefully engineered to eliminate optical distortions.

Designed to deliver stability at low speeds and exceptional maneuverability, the EMB 312 possessed attributes crucial for a basic training aircraft. Beyond its primary training role, the aircraft could accommodate external loads on four hardpoints mounted on its wings, enabling its utilization in armed training missions, air support operations, and ground attack tasks.



General Characteristics:

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 9.86 m (32 ft 4 in)
  • Wingspan: 11.14 m (36 ft 6 in)
  • Height: 3.4 m (11 ft 2 in)
  • Wing area: 19.4 m² (209 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 1,810 kg (3,991 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 3,175 kg (7,000 lb)
  • Internal fuel: 694 liters (183 US gal) [43] (152.7 IMP gal)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-25C turboprop, 552 kW (750 hp)


  • Never exceed speed: 539 km/h (291 kts, 335 mph)
  • Maximum speed: 458 km/h (247 kt, 285 mph) at 4,115 meters (13,501 ft)
  • Cruise speed: 441 km/h (238 kt, 274 mph) at 3,350 meters (10,990 ft)
  • Stall speed: 124 km/h (67 kt, 77 mph)
  • Range: 1,916 km (1,034 NM, 1,190 smi) on internal fuel
  • G limits: +6/-3
  • Endurance: 9 hours
  • Service ceiling: 8,750 m (28,700 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 1,900 ft/min (9.65 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 164 kg/m² (33.5 lb/ft²)


  • Guns: Gun pods:
    • AN/M-B machine gun
    • 12.7 mm machine gun
    • 7.62 mm machine gun (500 rounds)
  • Rocket Machine Gun pod:
    • RMP LC with a 12.7mm M3P and (4x) 70 mm [124]
  • Hardpoints: 4 under-wing pylons with a capacity of 1,000 kg (2,200 lb)
  • Rockets: 127 mm HVAR ground rockets
  • Rocket pods:
    • SBAT (7x) 37 mm
    • SBAT (7x) 70 mm
  • Bombs: General-purpose bombs:
    • Mk 81
    • Mk 82
  • Practice bomb: MK 76 (20 lb)
  • Others: Ferry tanks: 2x 660 liters (170 US gal) or 330 liters (87 US gal)

More pics:



Iran - Revolutionary Guard Air Force
Embraer T-27 Tucano (EMB-312)



Embraer EMB 312 Tucano - Wikipedia
AVIÕES MILITARES: Embraer T-27 Tucano e A-29 Super Tucano
Embraer T-27 Tucano – História da Força Aérea Brasileira


+1 cool plane, nice research, ok for latin american tech tree if comes, if not i would say good in brazil sub tree for italy

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Nah, no Super Tucano, no normal Tucano. Either both or none.

+1 for France and the “Short” Tucano for Britain, but if they didn’t carry any ordinance, then no
And of course, it should be in a future South American tree, that would be an interesting tree for sure.

As far as cursory research indicates, the RAF trainers did not have hardpoints, but an exported version of the Short Tucano did as seen below.




The Tucano can carry an impressive variety of free-fall bombs and forwardfiring ordnance. McCutchan explained, ‘We can carry a lot of weaponry on the aircraft for live ordnance training. We can carry up to 6,000 rounds of 7.62mm minigun ammunition, we carry up to 12 BDUs [practice bombs], and up to 14 2.75in rockets.’ The company’s literature also indicates the capacity for .50-cal machine guns and 127mm rockets, plus Mk81 (250lb) and Mk82 (500lb) generalpurpose bombs.


this Tucano was destined for the Kenya Air Force as their 816, and is pictured in the static display at the 1990 Farnborough Air Show. External stores, from left to right: Mk.82 by SEI Spa; LAU-32 7x 70 mm (2.75”) rocket launcher from South Africa; TMP-5 7.62mm Twin Machine Gun Pod by FN Herstal; CBLS-200 practice bomb carrier; RMP LC (Rocket Machine Gun pod) with a 12.7mm M3P and (4x) 70 mm rokets by FN Herstal; External Fuel Tank; and Vicom 70 Modular Reconnaissance pod by Vinten.