1x Revolving 5 barreled 37mm Hotchkiss cannon
- 68 rounds per minute
- Accurate up to 1.800m
- Each magazine held 10 rounds and weigh 8kg
- Pintle/pedestal mounted
- Cartrigde 37.94R
- Ammunition unknown (there were made special ammo for various 37mm cannons) but it was produced at Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk
The weapon came into use on smaller warships around 1880 and was the first machine gun in the Norwegian navy. The 37 millimeter cannon has 5 barrels and is one of several that were drawn on land and mounted on trucks when it was used in the battles of 1940. They were mostly taken from broken down, damaged beyind repair vessels or sunken ones. This cannon came on the Nordmann’s “Arne M. Myklebust” truck.
This cannon was dismantled by Myklebust, who buried it on the beach and hid it from the Germans for the rest of the war years. Afterwards, she was sandblasted and set up as a war memorial, even though she is missing the end piece/bolt
Due to lack of weapons, vehicles and such equipment, cannons were taken from various naval vessels and mounted on these trucks, most often civilian, privately owned trucks were put into use, and mounted these cannons on them. there are many stories about this, and many of the cannons are still standing around, both far out in the terrain and in farmers’ yards. These vehicles saw combat, several have been damaged (not sure if there were any fatalities, but not unlikely)
In the game this would be a nice addition. it is a pretty light and mobile vehicle, and the cannon should be more than enough to take out most of the vehicles it would face at its rank. it doesn’t have any armor, but it doesn’t matter much “no armor, best armor” right? so it will be fragile to any MG fire it faces. the crew should consist of Driver, Gunner & loader and possibly a commander and replacement (infantry)
I dig for more information and history and I will find more. i had to dig really really deep to find those, and history around them, so i hope it was worth it! almost forgotten to time!
Here I have quoted an interview, conducted by the Norwegian Lars Børge Sæberg (I like to credit the person who was lucky enough to interview him!)
Admiral Pettersen, who in 1940 was lieutenant and commander of the cannon cars. When the alarm went off on the night of 20 April, he drove two cannon trucks to Ljosnes. When the German boats came beyond Storsund, he opened fire with the big cannon. But the ammunition was designed for moderate fire, so the 65mm barrel exploded! “I was thrown several meters away from the car,” Pettersen said. But he immediately jumped onto the other truck and opened fire with the 37mm cannon. Otherwise, the distance was too long, and the German speedboats continued towards Uskedalen.
Some history regarding the resistance and the fights
The first encounter with the German invasion fleet took place at the entrance to Korsfjorden at 01:45 on the night of 9 April 1940. The German warships were there confronted by the fjord boat “Manger”, which had been hired as a guard boat for the Norwegian navy. When there was no response from the warship, two red signal lights were sent up to report foreign vessels on their way in. The German cruiser “Köln” then tried to deceive the Norwegian watchdog by signaling that they were the British cruiser HMS Cairo". On board “Manger” the signal was misinterpreted as “sei ruhig” (keep calm). Thus, the crew send up several signal lights.
For navy captain Johan Ulstrup, it was now a matter of preventing or delaying the foreign warships that were on their way to Bergen. He got in touch with the 2nd Naval District by phone and got permission to lay out sea mines in Lerøyosen. They managed to lay seven mines before the German naval vessels appeared. The invasion fleet passed Lerøyose without being hit by the mines or cannon fire from Lerøy fort. The Germans interpreted the shooting as a warning shot and therefore did not return fire. For them it was important to maintain the illusion that they were a British fleet on their way to Bergen to help Norway in the event of a German attack.
The Norwegian naval vessels in the area made several attempts to get into a position to attack the foreign fleet, but without closing. The German warships made a short stop just before the entrance to Byfjorden. Infantry soldiers boarded smaller vessels, and just before 4 o’clock in the morning the attack on Bergen was under way. In the meantime, Ulstrup and the minesweeper “<Tyr” had gone on to Grimstadfjorden to lay a mine belt of 16 sea mines at the entrance to Vatlestraumen. The torpedo boat “Sæl”, which was stationed in Brandasund, was ordered to get to the Lerøy section as soon as possible, and was placed there under Ulstrup’s command.
Throughout the night, Ulstrup had made several attempts to get in touch with the leadership in the 2nd Naval District to get further instructions and orders. In Bergen, the German invasion fleet had entered the harbor under cannon fire from Kvarven and Hellen fortress. Infantry were seen ashore from smaller vessels and motor torpedo boats with support from German bombers. At around 07.30 the fighting for the city was over, and the connection with Bergen and the surrounding districts was broken. A short time before, Ulstrup had received orders that all resistance should be stopped.
Ulstrup ignored the order and continued the military activities in the Lerøy section. After the German attack force had passed, the minesweeper Tyr" and the guard boats “<Alversund”, “Lindås” and “Manger” went to Klokkarvik to confer. There they were informed about the situation and about the mines that had been laid out. In the coming days, it was up to the Norwegian naval vessels in the Lerøy section to warn merchant vessels against entering Bergen, and to ensure that they were not hit by the mines. It was mostly solved by piloting the ship and showing them to various safe anchorages. They also attacked German boats camouflaged as merchant ships, which managed to break through to Bergen.
In Sunnhordland, the connection with Bergen was also broken, and the local scheduled boats were cancelled. Sheriffs and crisis councils set about securing the supply of food and supplies. Transport and mobilization of soldiers also had to be arranged. During the evening of 9 April, there were reports that Bergen was occupied by the Germans, and that all those mobilized were to be sent to Voss. Mobilization posters were hung up at a number of assembly points, and instructions were sent as to where and when the soldiers should meet. From the same evening and in the days that followed, a steady stream of conscript soldiers was sent to the mobilization site at Voss.
In order to protect this transport and establish a defense in Sunnhordland, the guard boat “Smart” with Captain Hauge was sent to Uskedal to set up a headquarters. Hauge arrived on the day of 9 April and got in touch with the 2nd Naval District, which had then moved to Voss. The Norwegian navy in Hordaland had been split in two and therefore had to be reorganized. What was left of naval combat forces outside Bergen was encouraged to search either north or south. Those who went north were included in what was named “Sognefjordens Sjøforsvarsavsnitt”. At the same time, a corresponding department was established in Sunnhordland, which was called -Hardangerfjorden Naval Defense Section. In the next few days, naval vessels from the Lerøy section and several nearby areas arrived here.
After ship traffic in Leroyosen had stopped, it was up to Tyr and the other naval vessels in the Leroy section to get to Uskedal. The torpedo boat “Sæl og vaktbåtane Alversund”, “Lindaas” and “Haus came to Uskedal on 12 and 13 April, while Tyr” arrived only on 16 April. The guard boat 'Manger had remained in Hjellestad, where the ship’s commander dismissed the crew three days after the German attack. The torpedo boat “Storm” capsized on its way to Uskedal. The crew was instead transported to Stord, and there joined the local defence.
The task for the Norwegian naval force in Sunnhordland was to defend the entrance to the Hardangerfjord. If it closes, it would prevent the Germans from penetrating in and landing soldiers who could take part in an attack against Voss. At the same time, the naval force was to protect the further mobilization in Sunnhordland.
In order to build up the new naval defense district, it was necessary to collect what they could of boats, weapons and personnel. One of the biggest difficulties was getting weapons. Already on 9 April, the Germans had captured Bergen and Ulven camp in Os, and thus also most of the I.R. 9 had weapons and equipment there. This led to it being the military depot of I.R. 10 at Voss that had to be used. Despite several requests, they could not dispose of weapons at first to build up a defense in Sunnhordland. The problem was solved by requisitioning private rifles from local shooting teams. Weapons that had been seized by the Germans were also stolen from German-controlled areas.
Since the mobilization of soldiers for the 4th Division was in full swing, the newly established naval defense district had to use gunners and volunteers to expand and strengthen close defence. In order to give this force greater impact, it was decided that the crew from Lerøy Fort should be transferred to Sunnhordland together with several sentries from the surrounding area. Lieutenant Sven Bugge with the guard boat “Haus” was assigned to pick up the soldiers. The commander of Lerøy fort, Captain Tangen, on the other hand, had dismissed the soldiers and left the fort together with the second-in-command, as he thought the German planes were too close. Weapons and equipment for 30-40 men were still at the fort, and Bugge saw to it that this was collected before the departure for Uskedal. They also tried to bring the cannons and searchlight to the fort, but failed. To prevent the Germans from using these, the searchlight was instead pushed into the sea and vital parts removed from the cannons.
A little more history regarding the cannoncars
At 22.15 the alarm went off in Uskedal. Several German vessels were observed heading south through Langenuen, and the naval defense section prepared for battle. The torpedo boat “Stegg”, which was on its way out on another mission, had to turn around in a hurry and was ordered to remain in Herøysund until further notice. This night there was a full moon, calm weather and good visibility.
The Norwegian defense of Uskedal consisted mainly of local gunners and crew from the boats of the navy. Several of the ship’s guns from the guard boats had been dismantled and transferred to trucks, which gave them greater mobility. The steamship “Tindefjell”, which had been transferred from Leirvik on 11 April, acted as a communications centre. Apart from this, there was also an extensive reporting service. A volunteer corps was also set up in Uskedal with 25 marksman squads under the command of a conscript ensign. They were supposed to sew for guard duty and close defense. Weapons and ammunition for them were collected from Lerøy fort.
At 01.30 the Norwegians observed that the one German pioneer squad was seen ashore at Dimmelsvik by two motor torpedo boats and “Schiff 18”. The guard boat "Haus>> was then at the dock there, and the crew managed to seek cover just before the Germans arrived. Afterwards, the German vessels headed towards Uskedal, where “Tyr” and two gun trucks on land opened fire. One truck was put out of action when the cannon exploded at the first shot. The German vessels laid out a covering screen so that they could hide away. During the attempt to do this, “Schiff 18” ran into an islet, but later got free of its own engine.
Some time later, “Schiff 221” put the second German pioneer troop ashore at Trones, close to Herøysund. It was then 05.30. Now the pioneer soldiers could advance towards Uskedal from both sides with the support of the warships. The last gun truck was sent south to delay the German advance until they received reinforcements. The Germans nevertheless pressed forward, and the gun truck had to retreat. On the way north, the car ran out of petrol and was driven into the ditch. A vital part of the cannon was removed before the Norwegian soldiers advanced towards Uskedal on foot.
While the battle was going on in Uskedal, the torpedo boat “Stegg” first came into battle with “Schiff 221”, and then with the artillery ball ship “Bremse”, "Stegg had sought cover on Herøy to be able to use the front cannon against “Schiff 221”. During the exchange of shots, “Stegg” was hit by a projectile in the water line which exploded inside the ship. The shot caused a large leak ahead and started a fire which made it impossible to obtain more ammunition. The exchange of fire continued, but when the fire spread and they ran out of ammunition on deck, orders were given to abandon ship. Around 06.30, “Stegg” exploded. The crew had then only got a short distance away from the ship, but no one was seriously injured.
The minelayer Tyr" had in the meantime reached a bay at Skorpo, just outside Uskedal. They had gone out to attack the German infantry force in the south, but were gradually chased away by German machine guns and fire from “<Bremse”. The crew went ashore on Skorpo to take away weapons and equipment. Suddenly, German motor torpedo boats came in at great speed and laid down along the side of “Tyr”, Six men were taken prisoner by the Germans when they tried to get away in a rowing boat. The rest of the crew managed to get over to Ølve during the evening. The Germans took “Tyr” in tow back to Bergen, together with the guard boat “Haus”.
A little more about the fights, wich the cannoncars were used in
As the Germans pushed forward, it became clear that the Norwegian force on land was in danger of being surrounded. To avoid this, the soldiers who were in position along the Uskedal River were forced to withdraw to Uskedal. The order to retreat was given at 9 o’clock in the morning. The two German pioneer troops could then advance, and they met in Uskedal. There they set about securing the area. Allied equipment, weapons and other military equipment left behind by the Norwegians were destroyed.
There is no reliable information about the German casualties during these battles, but in one of the German reports it was said that 2-3 pioneer soldiers were injured. The Norwegian force was able to retreat up Uskedalen or up the mountain towards Omdalen. After this, the volunteer corps was disbanded.
The torpedo boat “Smart” was sent for repairs at Sunde. The guard boat “Lindaas” was supposed to supervise the entrance to the Hardangerfjord, but was lying on Halsnøy. Instead, a ship was requisitioned to supervise ship traffic in the Hardangerfjord, and she reported everything of interest to Uskedal and the 2nd Naval District. Civilian lookout posts were also established on both sides of the fjord.
On 23 April, Ulstrup had 15 mines transferred from Sognefjorden Sjøforsvarsdistrikt. Two of the mines were immediately taken on board a boat that had been requisitioned. The rest of the mines were stored on a quay at Skorpo. While the Norwegians organized the defense of Sunnhordland, the Germans were on the defensive. In the following days, the Germans sent several patrols towards Norheimsund. During a reconnaissance trip on 16 April, a motorcycle patrol of six men was shot down by Norwegian forces in Steinsdalen. It became clear to both the Norwegians and the Germans that this front was important and had to be maintained. The Germans continued with the reconnaissance in the area and concluded that this was where the main front lay. In reality, it was just a matter of a quickly assembled Norwegian group consisting of marines from the torpedo boat “Smart” and some soldiers who had managed to get out of Bergen. The soldiers tried their best to organize the local defense in Kvam while they waited for reinforcements to arrive. A battle group named the Nordheimsund group consisted of two troops from I.R. 10 and a half squad from the 3rd pioneer company. They were sent down from Voss to strengthen the guard in the area. On 23 April, however, the battle group was chased out of its positions at Fossen Bratte. The Germans had thus managed to open a new flank towards Voss.
On 23 April, the Germans sent in bombers to break down the resistance around Voss. For several days to come, the bombing caused great destruction at Vossevangen and the surrounding area. The Germans had planned a major operation which was to be launched on the night of 25 April. Voss was to be attacked from three sides by three different battle groups. One of these battle groups consisted of the minesweeper “M-1”, “Schiff 18”, D/S “Kong Olaf” with support from four motor torpedo boats. Soon Ulstrup and his crew were to have an unpleasant encounter with this battle group.
More abut the cannon & the cannon today
Video showing how this cannon worked
Hotchkiss 37mm Naval
The Revolver cannon today
Yes the cannon has survived all those years, and is the only one left in Norway, it does of course lack a lot of its components, but here it is exactly as it was (exept the missind modifications)
Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk/Raufoss Partronfabrik - 37x94R - Sharp - Cast iron explosive grenade for Maxim
Model and prod u ction
Model: Cast Iron Explosive Grenade for Maxim
Manufacturer: Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk/Raufoss Partronfabrik
Country of manufacture: Norway
Year of production: 1902-19xx
Total length: 165 mm
Ball diameter: 37.9 mm
Bullet length: 92.5 mm
Bullet type: Explosive grenade
Ball casing material: Cast iron
Bullet core material: Gunpowder for 10.15 mm cartridge
Sleeve material: Brass
Sleeve length: 94 mm
Bottom diameter: 40 mm
Sleeve base: Rimmed
Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk has produced several variants of 37mm grenades for cannons. From 1902, cast iron grenades with a compact tip and practice explosive grenades for Hotchkiss were supplied to the Main Arsenal. From 1905, grenades were also supplied for Maxim guns.
The Maxim grenades for the Navy were delivered both as hollow and compact. In the beginning, around 2,000 were delivered per year. Later, around 10,000 of the hollow grenades were delivered per year.
The grenade blanks were purchased from Drammens Jernstøperi. The arms factory’s price for the finished grenade was 60 øre per piece.
The cast iron explosive grenade has a centering band at the transition between the cylindrical and conical part of the grenade and in the middle of the cylindrical part. The bands are copper. A groove is milled on the rear part. This matches the notches in the brass sleeve to secure the projectile to the sleeve. The grenade has a length of L/2.5 and has a threaded hole in the mouth for a fire tube. It is filled with approx. 0.020 kg of gunpowder. Forsén’s muzzle percussion tube was used for this grenade. The fire pipe is made entirely of brass and consists of a hollow cylindrical pipe body with a bottom screw, a double runner and a safety spring.
The charge consists of 0.041 kg tube ballisticite (2.5/1.7 x 60) with a 5 gram ignition charge of Skar’s gunpowder for 10.15 mm cartridges. The charge is filled in a bag into which the incendiary charge is sewn. The bag is placed in the sleeve with the incendiary charge at the bottom. There were also charges of cordite (1x66 mm).
The ignition cap is a copper bang cap inserted in a metal cup with a bent back edge. The bottom of the cup is bent in the middle so that an anvil is formed for the snap cap. A fire channel is drilled through the bottom of the sleeve. The metal cup with a snap cap is inserted into a milled bearing in the bottom of the cartridge case.
Most important sources
https://uskedalen.no/content/uploads/2021/08/Sak_07802.pdf this explain the 37mm revolver cannon
Uskedalen does not have many historical memories, but one of them is the French-made revolver cannon that has had one for many years
strategic location at Sandakaien. But the cannon has been given an increasingly dense framework of birch and it is positive that there has now been a clean-up around it. Now she is more visible, but she needs a coat of measurement. New generations are growing up and a little repetition may be in order
The weapon came into use on smaller warships around 1880 and was the first machine gun in our navy. The cannon (37 millimetres) has 5 barrels and is one of several that were drawn on land and mounted on lorries when it appeared in 1940. This cannon came on Arne M. Myklebust’s car. A somewhat larger cannon was transported to Skardet by Odda after the battles and is still there. This cannon was dismantled by Myklebust who washed it down on the beach during the war years. Afterwards, she was sandblasted and set up as a war memorial, even though she is missing the end piece.
The owner is the State or, in practice, the Marine Museum in Horten. The municipality has entered into an agreement that the war memorial has been deposited and can stand here. The requirement is that someone takes responsibility for dissemination and supervision. Uskedalen Development by Tor H. Myklebust. Birger Myklebust and Kristian Bringedal and other good helpers got her placed where she stands now.
En norsk mineleggers motstandskamp | MilitærHistorie
this mentions that various cannons were mounted on trucks, amnong them both variants of the 37mm trucks, and the 76mm, should explain the 120mm as well, the various vessles had all those different cannons mounted
Sitated a couple lines
- For several days the vessel was hidden, before the journey continued to Uskedal on 15 April. There, Captain Ulstrup was installed as commander of the newly established Hardanger Naval Section, and command of the ship was taken over by Ensign Karl Sandnes. Captain Ulstrup ordered two smaller guns belonging to two guard boats put ashore, as well as the minelayer’s own 37 mm guns. Some of the cannons were mounted on trucks to act as mobile support.
- Other Norwegian support that was sent were the aforementioned trucks with mounted cannons from the guard boats. From shore, the vehicles tried to get shots in on the German boats, but were only of limited help. “Tyr”'s outdated weapons meant that the minelayer’s contribution in the battle was not much better than that of the trucks. Within a short time, “Sæl” was sinking, and “Tyr” had no choice but to return to Uskedal.
I have also discussed this on a lot of forums, i can include this also. but i dont know if that kind is accepted here? is it is, i will provide.
there are among other things people who have done more research than me, and that eiter had the connection that the soilders were family, even as close as parents, one of them even interwieved one of those manning the 65mm verison, where the cannon blew!
these trucks were used basically where i am living, so i have the possibility to travel and take pictues etch of the remains, if needed.
SUNNHORDLAND OKKUPASJON OG MOTSTAND 19401945 - Kapabel
Hotchkiss gun - Wikipedia
Norsk Militærhistorisk Forening | Facebook
Motiv: Sprengt 65mm kanon montert på lastebil - Uskedal april 1940 - Forsvarets museer / DigitaltMuseum
Ammunisjon i kaliber 37 mm
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