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The vehicle’s brief history:
The X1A2 was a light tank developed by Bernardini around 1978 and was the culmination of the X1 family. In contrast to the rest of the X1 Stuart family however, the X1A2 was a completely new tank from the ground up. This was because the previous X1A1 project had become virtually unsteerable after the engineers had lengthened the old Stuart hull without changing its width. As also widening the Stuarts was considered unfeasible, Bernardini tried its hand at designing a tank from tbe ground up. It integrated components from the previous X1A1 project like the turret, suspension and engine, but received a new CD-500 transmission and a newly designed wider hull.
10 X1A2s would enter service, making them the only Brazilian developed and manufactured tank to enter service with an Army. Sadly, the other 14 built would be relegated as gate guardians upon delivery as all the Stuarts, Shermans and the entire X1 family were phased out and replaced by the modernized M41C in 1988.
The CCL X1A2 is a light vehicle, it weighed 19 tonnes (21 US tons), it had a 6.06 meters long hull, 2.6 meters wide and 2.45 meters tall. It had a crew of three (driver, gunner and commander/loader), with the driver located on the front left of the hull, the commander/loader on the left side of the turret and the gunner on the right side of the turret, also it stowed 18 rounds (in the turret) and an additional 40 rounds (in the hull), for a total of 58 rounds of 90 mm ammunition.
The CCL X1A2 used an very similar turret used in the CCL X1A1, it was armored with 30mm thick steel plates at various angles to protect it from .50 caliber machine gun fire at 200 meters. The turret had a fixed mount for a .50 machine gun on the top next to the commander cupola, it used additional tracks as armor in the bustle sides of the turret, it had access to six smoke dischargers (three on each side of the turret) with 16 smoke grenades, it could traverse 360 degrees in 12 seconds and it also stores 18 rounds of 90mm ammunition.
The CCL X1A2 was armed with EC-90 III (Engesa’s licence produced Cockerill 90 mm low pressure cannon) with a recoil stroke of 500 mm and a gun depression of 8 degrees and elevation of 17 degrees, as secondary armament, it had a .30 coaxial machine gun (with 2,500 rounds) and a fixed roof-mounted for a .50 (with 750 rounds) located in the left side of the turret in front of the commander’s cupola.
16+24 = 40 Rounds
!Important Observation regarding the Ammunition storage pics!
Written sourcing and the images from the gate guardian seem to contradict each other in the amount of ammunition the X1A2 had. It is however important to point out that the gate guardian had numerous components missing from the inside and has effectively been left to rot for potentially 35 years, which could explain this discrepancy.
- Front: 30 mm
- Sides: 30 mm
- Rear: 30 mm
- Top: 15 mm
- Gun Shield: 15 mm
- Front (Upper Glacis): 15 mm
- Front (Middle Glacis): 35 mm
- Front (Lower Glacis): 30 mm
- Sides: 30 mm
- Rear: 30 mm
- Top: 30 mm
- Floor: 15 mm
The CCL X1A2 used the Scania-Vabis DS-11 6-cylinder in-line 280 hp diesel engine. The engine produced 256 hp at 2,200 rpm with the vehicle receiving a horsepower per ton ratio of 15.1, giving the vehicle a top speed of 60 km/h on-roads and an on-road operational range of 600 kilometers.
The CCL X1A2 used a three speed Allison CD-500 transmission.
The CCL X1A2 used a slightly altered VVS suspension system from 18-Ton High Speed Tractor M4, three bogie on each side of the vehicle, each consisting of two rubber tired steel wheels held in brackets which oscillate on hinge pins in the bracket that is bolted to the hull. The suspension gave to the vehicle a ground pressure of 0.63 kg/cm2 an on-ground track length of about 3.66 meters and it could cross a trench of 2.1 meters.
CCL X1A2 Carcará Technical Sheet:
- Crew: 3 (Driver, Commander/Loader, and Gunner)
- Length (including the gun): 6.06 meters
- Width: 2.6 meters
- Height: 2.45 meters
- Total Weight: 19 Tons (21 US Tons)
- Turret ammunition stowage: 24
- Hull ammunition stowage: 44
- Main Armament: EC-90 III (Engesa’s licensed-produced Cockerill 90 mm low-pressure cannon)
- Secondary Armament: .50 machine gun and a .30 coaxial machine gun
- Engine: Scania-Vabis DS-11 6-cylinder in-line 280 hp diesel engine
- Ground pressure: 0.63 kg/cm²
- On-ground track length: 3.66 meters
- Trench cross: The vehicle could cross a trench of 2.1 meters
- Suspension: Bogie Suspension
- Transmission: Allison CD-500 transmission
- Maximum speed on-road: 60 km/h
- Maximum speed off-road: 30 km/h
- Reverse speed: 15 km/h
- On-road operational Range: 600 km
- Off-road operational Range: 350 km
Brazilian Stuart – M3, M3A1, X1, X1A2 and their Derivatives – Hélio Higuchi, Paulo Roberto Bastos Jr., Reginaldo Bacchi
Sir. Darren Hazes Article: CCL X1A2 Carcará - Tank Encyclopedia
TM 9-785 18-Ton High Speed Tractors M4, M4A1, M4C, and M4A1C – US Army April 1952.
CCL X1A2 Carcará all sides pics: X1A2 Carcara Walk Around Page 1