APDS, HEATFS, HESH, APCR, APHEBC, APFSDS.. is there any shell that actually works properly?

The same, but not quite. Thanks to a special method of hardening the front surface of the projectile, these APHEs technically had an “armor-piercing cap”, it was simply formed directly from the body of the projectile. This is actually the reason for the lack of an armor-piercing cap on Japanese tanks, and even on the latest guns (for example, the 105-mm gun, known to you from Ho-Ri), not armor-piercing caps were offered, but ballistic caps. In addition, late Japanese armor-piercing shells were made from high-alloy tungsten-chromium steel and provided such high armor penetration for their caliber that APCR prototypes were rejected after testing as not providing a noticeable increase in penetration. The game does not take into account the complex structure of the projectile, nor its complex chemical composition, and therefore we see a monstrous discrepancy between the numbers from reality and the numbers from the game, often 20…50% lower than what the Japanese and American sides indicate. The normalization error that you are talking about is just a drop in the bucket compared to other problems with the implementation of Japanese tank shells.