6x 76mm Fast firing automatic cannons
3x 45.7cm Whitehead Model VII overwater torpedocannons (one aft and two amidships by the chimneys) as seen oh the picture
(the aft mounted torpedo cannon was turnable 360 degrees)
Displacement: 580 ton steel hull ARMED
Crew: 76 men
Bunkers: 105 ton coal
Power: 8.000 IHK
Speed: 27.4 knots
1914: Test drive
1914: Squadron tour
1940: Laid at Herdla outside Bergen on April 9
1940: Attempted torpedo attack on the German invasion fleet in Bergen, this was unsuccessful
1940: Sunk by German bombers at Bjordal in Sognefjorden 26 May
In the rearmament of our navy which had taken place in the years before 1905, and especially from 1895, we had built a long series of smaller cannon and torpedo vessels with archipelago defense as their primary task. we had received a smaller number of ocean-going vessels, where of course the armored ships were the main beam. Already a few years before the dissolution of the union, the defense development was turned towards fortresses and land defenses, and after the dissolution of the union there were reductions across the entire fosse defense line. Many thought that our navy, after the power peak in the mid-1890s, was now reasonably strong compared to the Swedish fleet. at the same time, the navy was characterized by the dispute between admirals Sparre and Børresen, and a contributing factor to the stagnation in the navy’s development may have been that a clear and convincing explanation was not put forward for which tasks should be assigned to the navy in the country’s defence. in 1908 there was a recommended fleet plan from the admiralty staff. as usual, the number of vessels was far above what was realistic. six new armored ships, six new destroyers and 14 submarines plus a large number of smaller vessels were envisaged. eventually both the Ministry of Defense and the Government agreed to build new armored ships, but the Storting said no. when only in 1912 was the necessary extra grant given to order two new armored ships, this was, as is well known, too late in relation to having new vessels completed before the outbreak of war in 1914.
In addition to four new submarines and a few individual smaller vessels, the torpedo destroyers Draug, Troll and Garm therefore became the only new vessels for the navy between 1905 and 1914. The reason for choosing to focus on torpedo destroyers can be explained by the fact that with the high number of smaller vessels had a certain imbalance in relation to the ability to protect these against large vessels. it was also realized that the new weapon, the submarines, would need protection against larger surface vessels
MORE ABOUT THE VESSELS
Karljohansvern Verft had been through some difficult and turbulent years after the dissolution of the union. The decision to build the destroyers was very welcome, if not absolutely decisive for the shipyard’s continued existence. technologically speaking, the three destroyers also represented a crossroads. The sister ships Draug and Troll received the existing piston engine technology with two vertical 4 cylinder triple expansion engines. at 340 revolutions per minute, they developed 8,000 indicated horsepower, which gave the vessels a speed of 27 knots. then, with respect to steam pressure and weight, this technology was pushed to the limit. the piston machines were open without casing and without circulation lubrication. Draug and troll then also became notorious for their dirty engine rooms. during full speed driving, the bearings were supplemented with extra oil and seawater cooling was applied. what followed was a veritable rainstorm from the machine of seawater and splashing lubricating oil, which made it both slippery, difficult to see and of course dangerous for the machinists
When Garm was built a few years later, steam turbines were installed for the first time on a Norwegian naval vessel. these were delivered from the German Germania yard, but were still coal-fired, and Garm gained a reputation for being the biggest coal guzzler in the Navy
With six rapid-firing 76mm guns and three 45.7cm torpedo guns, the destroyers should, in relation to their size, be very heavily armed. Opinions on this were divided, however, but most agreed that the seagoing properties were good. however, they were expensive to operate, and as we will look at in more detail, with the exception of the neutrality watch period, they were not used very much
THE TIME BEFORE 1939
Draug first took part in exercises in the summer squadron in 1910, then also with the new Kobben. It was also out the following year in a squadron that went to Italy, France and Scotland. but in 1912 and 1913 it was Troll’s turn. and Draug was given rest. Gram barely had time to begin her trial trip in the summer of 1914 when the navy was mobilized to guard neutrality on 2 August 1914
The new vessels were of course part of the neutrality guard, mainly in Western Norway, but unfortunately there is no detailed information about this that I can find. The vessels appear to a small extent in the admiral staff’s overview of episodes of violations of neutrality, vessels flagged with and communication with the vessels of the belligerents. On one occasion towards the end of the war, Troll rescued the crew of a mine-exploded Belgian vessel outside Utsira. Norway never undertook any actual convoying of its own merchant vessels during the First World War, for fear of coming into conflict with the warring parties. instead, the areas outside particularly open coastal stretches were patrolled as an indirect protection of their own coastal traffic. it is probably in such a role that the destroyers are primarily used
during these four years had three different bosses. Captain Wigers up to September 1915 tells of a lot of silence. Captain Beutlich, the later naval historian, was commander until May 1917. As commander of Troll, he had previously made a critical statement about the new vessels, and he writes a status report: “the ongoing naval war has apparently somewhat changed this view in some respects, however not to the extent that I feel more convinced than before that the arming of this first type of destroyer of ours has hit the right spot”.
In the admiral’s staff’s overview of the distribution of vessels in the various districts and departments at the end of the neutrality protection in November 1918, the torpedo destroyers do not appear. it is probably because they have gone out of print. with the exception of a single outfitting of Draug and Troll in 1921, they remain in circulation until neutrality guards are again equipped in August 1939
THE TIME AFTER 1939
During the protection of neutrality, the three, rather dilapidated fighters, were re-equipped and transferred to the Bergen division as 1 destroyer division. this was a demanding service with great responsibility on the captains. on the one hand, the German vessels stretched the regulations for legal passage through Norwegian waters to the maximum, while the British lay outside and waited for a legal way to attack under international law.
Both Draug and Garm were affected by the episode with the City of Flint in November 1939, which ended with Norway interning the German prize crew due to a breach of the neutrality regulations.
Draug, but especially Garm, was also involved in the Altmark affair in February 1940. Captain Stamsø on Garm was the one who was twice on board Altmark, and because he was denied a full inspection, he also did not let the vessel pass Bergen Krigshavn. Garm also discovered the prisoners of war on board, but this message never got through to Admiral Diesen. he thus finally allowed the passage, which triggered the later British rescue operation in the Jøssingfjord. This convinced both parties that they could not trust that Norway would in the future enforce and enforce its own rules of neutrality.
As is well known, this ended in the very tense situation on 8 April when great uncertainty reigned, Admiral Tank-Nielsen had interpreted the signals better than many others, and he prepared the destroyers that a German attack could be expected during the night
Garm was sent towards Bergen to try and torpedo the main German force, but it arrived a little late. they still got one more opportunity to torpedo the cruiser Kønigsberg, but because the torpedoes were preset at too short a distance, it was useless. they themselves had to flee under fire from both Kønigsberg and German planes. Garm later went to the Sognefjord, where it was attacked and sunk by German bombers while docked.
Troll, which was in Måløy on 9 April, later came into battle with German aircraft in the Sognefjord, without major damage. on 3 May it docked in Florø, which was under increasing pressure from the Germans. it was intended that it, together with the B6, should go to Great Britain that evening. however, large parts of the crew had lost faith that further fighting would be useful, and they disappeared from the vessel the next day. when the Germans also threatened to bomb Florø if the vessels did not surrender, Captain Dahl found that there was nothing else to do. after converting it into a distillation vessel, the Germans used the Troll throughout the war. after the war it was returned, but it was chopped up in 1949
Draug, under his capable captain Horve, on the other hand, did not embarrass himself. under high alert, it kept watch in the Karmsundet south of Haugesund on the night of 9 April. at 4 o’clock in the morning the German supply ship Main arrived, which due to pilot problems had been delayed in relation to the plan to be in Trondheim before the actual attack. after signaling and warning shots, Draug got the vessel to stop Main and Brought the vessel into Haugesund. Here, Draug’s second-in-command, Sjur Østerold, refused to inspect the vessel’s hold. at the same time, Horve received information that both Bergen and Stavanger were occupied, and that Haugesund was threatened by aircraft. he then decided to try to bring Draug over to Great Britain with Main as prize. after a few hours’ sailing, e was attacked by aircraft, and although none of the vessels were damaged, it made Main’s captain think of the instruction not to let his ship fall into the hands of the enemy. he therefore rigged the bottom valves and put the crew of 67 in the lifeboats. these were picked up by draug who came via Shetland to Scapa Flow on 11 April. Here, most of the crews were transferred to British destroyers, as important precursors to the later naval cooperation. Draug was later rebuilt with, among other things, stronger air defenses and greater convenience after the removal of a chimney. then it served as an escort vessel on the east coast until November 1943, when it was broken up
After the war, Horve’s decision to go to Great Britain was assessed by a commission. they came to the conclusion that he could not be criticized and Horve was awarded the War Cross with Sword
The War Cross (krigskorset)
The War Cross is a Norwegian military medal. It is Norway’s highest-ranked award, and is ranked ahead of all other orders and medals. From 1941 to 1945, the award was awarded with and without a sword. After 1945, all awards are with swords, and the award is then also known as the War Cross with swords.
PICTURES AND IMPORTANT DETAILS
Here is also some picturesof a model showing placements of cannons and torpedocannons etc and various details ( draug destroyer model — ImgBB )
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Norske marinefartøy - samtlige norske marinefartøy 1814-2008 og marinens flygevåpen 1912-1944 | ARK Bokhandel
Fylkesbaatane – Om saluttkanoner - Kulturhistorisk leksikon
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