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German aircraft types? [1930s~1945]


Wiggly_Armed_Man
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I don't know if Germany had a list of this or anything, like the U.S. does or the Soviets did, but did they have designated terms for the type of aircraft they used? Like, "fighter", "attacker", etc; but in German of course. The only term I've found referenced as being apart of the official Luftwaffe nomenclature is "Kampfflugzeug" (attack aircraft) which is what they called all of their bomber aircraft.

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4 hours ago, Wiggly_Armed_Man said:

I don't know if Germany had a list of this or anything, like the U.S. does or the Soviets did, but did they have designated terms for the type of aircraft they used? Like, "fighter", "attacker", etc; but in German of course. The only term I've found referenced as being apart of the official Luftwaffe nomenclature is "Kampfflugzeug" (attack aircraft) which is what they called all of their bomber aircraft.

commonly not...

 

they designed the enterprise name... by example "Me" Messerschmitt, "He" for Heinkel, "Do" for Dornier, "Ju" for Junkers... etc... if the designer/fabricant had 2 names, they would take the first initials of them, by example:  "FW" for Focke Wulf, "BF" Bayerische Flugzeugwerke... if i say fabricant or designer is because, there existed situations where the Focke Wulf (fabricant of the FW190) renamed the final series of that family as "Ta", in honor of Kurt Tank (the designer), while the FW series were still in production in parallel to the New Ta152s... and there were another situations where "BF" Bayerische Flugzeugwerke were bought by the Messerschmitt, so the planes designed while there was Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, stay as BF, instead the new series like Me262 and Me410 were named Me, the most common error is rename Bf planes into Me, like Me109 or Me110...

 

the "figther" "attacker" designations dont existed... in other way, for each Model for each fabricant, existed subvariants... for example FW190 A and D, Figthers Interceptors, FW190 F Attackers, FW190G Long Range Attackers... but that doesnt apply to all Models, for example the BF109 A,B,C were figthers early models, E was a remotorized variant, the F series were with new fuselage, all of them were fighters...

 

the numbers of each models belongs to the Patentnumber, asigned by the comercial register in Germany

 

Take in mind, you will not find the therm "Attackers" instead, you will seek the "JaBo", wich means "JagdBomber"... the therm "Kampfflugzeug" is for Figther Aircraft... and the germans had such special tags for their specific planes, like "SchnellBomber" as a very Fast Bomber... or the less known "Zerstörers", Heavy Fighers with revamped armament to increase firepower to take down the hordes of B17s and Lancasters... and therefore were the "NatchJaggers", Night Fighters...

Edited by zSektor92
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2 hours ago, zSektor92 said:

commonly not...

 

they designed the enterprise name... by example "Me" Messerschmitt, "He" for Heinkel, "Do" for Dornier, "Ju" for Junkers... etc... if the designer/fabricant had 2 names, they would take the first initials of them, by example:  "FW" for Focke Wulf, "BF" Bayerische Flugzeugwerke... if i say fabricant or designer is because, there existed situations where the Focke Wulf (fabricant of the FW190) renamed the final series of that family as "Ta", in honor of Kurt Tank (the designer), while the FW series were still in production in parallel to the New Ta152s... and there were another situations where "BF" Bayerische Flugzeugwerke were bought by the Messerschmitt, so the planes designed while there was Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, stay as BF, instead the new series like Me262 and Me410 were named Me, the most common error is rename Bf planes into Me, like Me109 or Me110...

I should've made myself more clear but I'm not asking about the manufacturer designations.

 

2 hours ago, zSektor92 said:

the "figther" "attacker" designations dont existed... in other way, for each Model for each fabricant, existed subvariants... for example FW190 A and D, Figthers Interceptors, FW190 F Attackers, FW190G Long Range Attackers... but that doesnt apply to all Models, for example the BF109 A,B,C were figthers early models, E was a remotorized variant, the F series were with new fuselage, all of them were fighters...

 

the numbers of each models belongs to the Patentnumber, asigned by the comercial register in Germany

 

Take in mind, you will not find the therm "Attackers" instead, you will seek the "JaBo", wich means "JagdBomber"... the therm "Kampfflugzeug" is for Figther Aircraft... and the germans had such special tags for their specific planes, like "SchnellBomber" as a very Fast Bomber... or the less known "Zerstörers", Heavy Fighers with revamped armament to increase firepower to take down the hordes of B17s and Lancasters... and therefore were the "NatchJaggers", Night Fighters...

That doesn't seem right. Kampfflugzeug was the term they used for bombers during the war, with stuff like Schnellbomber being propaganda names rather than a actual class of aircraft. That much I am certain of. Also aren't zerstörers just heavy fighters meant to be long-range escort or fighting craft? In contrast to more specialized heavy fighters like nachtjagdflugzeug or jagdbomberflugzeug?

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Engineers, no matter what nation they are from, have weird ways of designating vehicles, always have it seems. And whenever the engineers did not do the naming, it was the military, so . . . . quite often not very "creative" or simplistic it seems like. While making perfect sense to those doing the naming, usually seemed kinda weird to "laymen" I suppose.

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Bomber = Bomber or Kampfflugzeug

Fighter = Jäger

Fighter with ground attack option = Jagdbomber

Twin engined heavy Fighter = Zerstörer

Nightfighter = Nachtjäger

Ground Attacker = Schlachtflieger

Dive Bomber = Sturzkampfflugzeug (StuKa)

 

Edited by KillaKiwi
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4 hours ago, KillaKiwi said:

Military Aircraft that isn't a bomber = Kampfflugzeug (broad term)

Bomber = Bomber

Fighter = Jäger

Fighter with ground attack option = Jagdbomber

Twin engined heavy Fighter = Zerstörer

Nightfighter = Nachtjäger

Ground Attacker = Schlachtflieger

Dive Bomber = Sturzkampfflugzeug (StuKa)

 

Everywhere I've seen that mentions the specific of Kampflugzeug always says that it referred specifically to bombers during the interwar and war periods and that it wasn't until after that it became a broad term referring to combat aircraft. Doesn't Sturzkampfflugzeug reinforce that? If they did use Bomber instead, why not Sturzbomber?

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19 hours ago, Wiggly_Armed_Man said:

Everywhere I've seen that mentions the specific of Kampflugzeug always says that it referred specifically to bombers during the interwar and war periods and that it wasn't until after that it became a broad term referring to combat aircraft. Doesn't Sturzkampfflugzeug reinforce that? If they did use Bomber instead, why not Sturzbomber?

Well, according to the German wiki, Kampfflugzeug indeed refered to Bombers till 1945.

 

And the ammunition recommendation for June 1944 in the ammunition manual for airplanes mentions three types of planes:

Jäger, Schlachtflieger and Kampfflugzeuge. While on one occasition it reads "Kampf- Schlachtflieger und Jäger", which would mean Kampfflieger instead of Kampfflugzeug. But it probably means the same.

Edited by KillaKiwi
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2 hours ago, KillaKiwi said:

Well, according to the German wiki, Kampfflugzeug indeed refered to Bombers till 1945.

 

And the ammunition recommendation for June 1944 in the ammunition manual for airplanes mentions three types of planes:

Jäger, Schlachtflieger and Kampfflugzeuge. While on one occasition it reads "Kampf- Schlachtflieger und Jäger", which would mean Kampfflieger instead of Kampfflugzeug. But it probably means the same.

Is there a pdf of it available anywhere online? Though I'm guessing there's not. Does it clarify any further what aircraft qualify as each of those? The line between attacker and bomber can be a bit blurred.

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41 minutes ago, Wiggly_Armed_Man said:

Is there a pdf of it available anywhere online? Though I'm guessing there's not. Does it clarify any further what aircraft qualify as each of those? The line between attacker and bomber can be a bit blurred.

 

Not really.  "Bomber" referred mostly to aircraft intended for level bombing at medium to high altitude.  "Sturzkampfflugzeug" or "Sturzbomber" referred to aircraft which could deliver their payload in a dive.  "Schlachtflieger" in turn referred to aircraft which attacked their target at a low altitude (what we would term as "CAS").

 

Of course, the problem is that there is a fine line between what is one and what is another, but that mostly hosts from the muddy procurement and acquisition politics of the Luftwaffe that started in the mid-1930s.  It's a complicated story, but in its most simplified form it can be reduced to the rivalry between Ernst Udet and Erhard Milch - Udet was a proponent of multiple, specialised, single-task aircraft while Milch preferred the multi-task airframe.

 

Hence, under Udet's leadership of the Luftwaffe's Procurement and Supply department, the Luftwaffe saw a development of a swathe of different aircraft all suited to a single task (Bf 109 fighter, Bf 110 and 210 heavy fighter, Hs 129 attack aircraft, Ju 87 dive bomber, He 111 bomber, Fw 189 reconnaissance aircraft, etc...)

 

Under Milch's leadership, on the other hand (following Udet's suicide in 1941), the Luftwaffe orientated towards production of a limited number of types in numerous varied roles - hence you get aircraft such as the Fw 190, which was used as a fighter, interceptor, night fighter, ground attack aircraft and fast recon aircraft depending on the version and variant; the Ju 88 which was primarily designed as fast bomber but also used as dive bomber, torpedo bomber, attack aircraft, heavy fighter, night fighter and reconnaissance aircraft, depending on version and variant; etc.

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