kleinerPanzer

T-28 Model 1934: The Predecessor

T-28 (1934)  

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  1. 1. Should the T-28 Model 1934 be implemented?

    • Yes, in the tech tree
      18
    • Yes, as a premium (please explain)
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    • Yes, as a gift/rare (please explain)
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    • No (please explain)
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The T-28 Model 1934 is the first mass-produced medium tank of the Soviet Union, with 503 examples being produced between 1933 and 1940. It was later upgraded to the Model 1936 and Model 1938 standards, the latter of which is found in-game. The T-28 Model 1934 is primarily distinguished by its KT-28 gun, as opposed to the L-10 found on later models.

 

Soviet-T-28-Model-1934-Press.jpg

 

OVERVIEW

The T-28 Model 1934, as stated above, is effectively just the same T-28 but with the inferior KT-28 gun instead of the L-10. In fact, the turret is the same as that installed on the T-35, with the single hatch as well. The name "Model 1934" is not official; many sources just call it the "main production T-28". However, this tank was first mass-produced in 1934 while subsequent models, such as the Model 1938 in-game, were produced in 1938. Additionally, it is the same designation system used for all Soviet tanks from before 1945.

 

Given its statistics, it would likely fit well at BR 1.7. It could be at Rank I, directly succeeding the T-26-4 and preceding the T-28 (Model 1938). 

 

The KT-28 is a 76,2 mm short-barreled cannon, found also on the T-26-4 and T-35. 

 

In the images, the Model 1936 and Model 1938 are referenced frequently. These are explained in the History section.

 

Turret

Spoiler

9b7047aeef2a2b6345e891ae8ec4b619f4.jpeg

The roof of the T-28 Model 1934. This example is actually one of the rare uparmored versions, T-28E, which retained the KT-28 gun despite being remanufactured. The original rectangular hatch and faint outline of the star print are visible, just as on the original T-35 tanks.

T-35_No183-8_near_Lvov.jpg

For reference, an early-production T-35 tank here has the same single rectangular turret hatch. This is also the same as the T-35 found in-game.

T-28_13.jpg

For another comparison, this Model 1936, which contains the steel wheels but retains the KT-28 gun, has a revised turret roof, with two hatches instead of one. 

T-28_14.jpg

The same setup can be seen on this Model 1938.

Hull

Spoiler

T-28_2.jpg

The square shape of the KT-28 is barely visible behind the opened engine hatch, but the other access panel, with the grille, is clearly the single-door version found on Model 1934 tanks. This particular vehicle also had the brackets for the horseshoe radio mount.

 

Here is the same Model 1938 seen in the "turret" section. It has the horizontal split engine hatch, as well as the steel wheels on the 4th and 5th bogies, and of course, the L-10 gun.

T-28_11.jpg

As another reference, here is a Model 1936. The steel wheels can be seen, but the engine hatches open vertically in two doors, while still retaining the KT-28 gun.

soviet_tank_T-28_18.jpg

Here an early Model 1936 with the single-door access hatch.

soviet_tank_T-28_7.jpg

Again, the single hatch panel can be seen on this Model 1934.

feee434b1f7cbad852b61195dad18ed809.png

Two of the 14 Model 1933 tanks. The solid engine cover is clearly visible. The earlier exhaust type is harder to differentiate, but is there.

32100e364a304376c0286c8cfb3754e236.png

A diagram showing the two different exhaust types. The Model 1933 on the left, the main-series production on the right.

 

HISTORY

In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the Soviet Union found the necessity to develop a new series of tanks to replace their archaic T-18 and T-24 tanks, both of which had designs which were more suited for the Great War. The British Vickers A1E1 Independent in the late 1920s became one of the influences for the design of the T-28, as shown by its overall shape and the configuration of the turrets and their armaments. Quite quickly, the trend of multi-turreted designs came to be, and the Soviets were one of the major contenders.

 

In 1931, the designers of the Factory No. 232 Bolshevik (later split into Factory No. 185 S.M. Kirov and Factory No. 174 K.E. Voroshilov) in Leningrad were tasked with a 3-turret medium tank. The first T-28 prototype was riveted, with the arrangements of the turret and weapons much like they are found currently: one main central turret with 3 crew members, two small machine gun turrets, and the driver seated between them. It was plagued with mechanical issues, and in October 1932, the project was handed over to Red Putilovite Factory (later split into (Leningrad)-Kirov Factory No. 100 and Chelyabinsk-Kirov Factory No. 100), upon which 12 new pre-production vehicles were constructed. Ten participated in the May Day parades in Moscow in 1933.

 

The layout of the new tank was largely unchanged, but it was substantially changed from Factory No. 232's original design. The tank was welded together in the majority of locations. The turret was enlarged and made into an elliptical cylinder. The 76,2 mm KT-28 gun (caliber 16.5) was introduced, and the small machine gun turrets were slightly redesigned. These components were identical to those found on the T-35. The drivetrain was revised and improved as well. These first 14 tanks are generally referred to as Model 1933, and are more or less pre-production tanks, having more teething troubles than most serial production. They over the rear section of the engine, a solid piece of metal was used as a hatch. They had slightly smaller stowage bin on the hull sides, when compared to series-production vehicles. None of these examples mounted the horseshoe antenna. Some more Model 1933 tanks were produced, with a revised exterior stowage. 

 

In 1934, a new engine cover was designed, with access vents as opposed to being a solid piece of metal. Additionally, a new exhaust system was introduced. This is what we know to be the Model 1934, and is the main production version. Some later production Model 1934s, as seen in the photographs, had a rear-mounted DT machine gun installed. This became production standard on all subsequent models.

 

Tanks with steel wheels on the 4th and 5th bogies were produced from 1936 onwards. New turret hatches were introduced, creating two separate hatches (as opposed to the original single hatch), one of which could hold the P-40 anti-aircraft mount. The 71-TK-1 radio was also exchanged for the 71-TK-3. These changes are generally classified as the Model 1936.  The air intake was revised again, this time to feature two vertically-opening doors with vents. Later, the doors were changed to open horizontally. These two changes most likely came in 1937, and are occasionally called Model 1937. Sometimes, the differences between Model 1934 and Model 1936 are not considered separate variants, and are all grouped as Model 1934. Some even include the Model 1933 as part of the entire series, basing the classification solely on the main gun. 

 

Finally, in 1938, the tank was upgraded to house the L-10 76,2 mm gun, which was more suitable for combating armor. This became known as the Model 1938.  In 1940, there was a small production run of T-28s with conical turrets rather than cylindrical, sometimes called T-28 Model 1940

 

The T-28, upon introduction, was one of the most advanced tanks in the world, and could rightly be considered one of the best. However, their first major combat in 1939 against Finland (the annexation of the Baltics and invasion of Poland were not true trials of combat) showed many glaring issues. The 20 mm-thick armor was severely insufficient. As such, the up-armored T-28E tanks were produced from tanks sent back to the factory for repairs. While extra armor could be found on all types of T-28s, most tanks which were sent back to the factory with KT-28 guns had the gun replaced with the L-10, leaving uparmored KT-28 tanks extremely rare. This proved to be enough to save the T-28 in the Winter War.

 

By the time of the German invasion in 1941, the T-28 design was eight years old, but it was not incompetent. It still had superior firepower and mobility than the vast majority of German tanks, and, while its armor was no longer sufficient, it still proved to be a tough target at times. Unlike its older brother, the T-35, it was more reliable and there were generally fewer losses to purely mechanical reasons. Unfortunately for the T-28, the poor Soviet planning and strategy used in 1941 led to nearly all remaining T-28s being abandoned or destroyed before the end of winter, leaving a substantial void of medium tanks until the soon-to-be famous T-34 could fully replace it. 

 

As of today, only 5 complete T-28 tanks exist, one of which is a wreck. There is a T-28E Model 1938 (Ps.241-4, Finland), two other T-28Es, either Model 1936 or 1938 (also in Finland, one being the wreck), a T-28 Model 1936 (Moscow), and a T-28 Model 1938 (Verkhnyaya Pyshma). No original Model 1934 tanks still exist, although the Model 1936 in Moscow is very similar.

 

STATISTICS

Crew

6 (Commander, Driver, Gunner, Loader, 2 Machine Gunners)

Length

7.44 m

Width

2.87 m 

Height

2.82 m

Ground Clearance

60 cm (number often varies; ranges 59-70 cm)

Weight

25.0 t (number often varies; maximum is 27.0 t)

Ground Pressure

0.72 kg/cm2

Track-Ground Contact

5.87 m (length), 41 cm (width)

Engine

M-17T V12 Petrol
500 hp at 1445 rpm

Power-to-Weight Ratio

18 hp/t

Transmission

4 forward, 1 reverse

Speed

45 km/h (road), 20 km/h (cross-country)

(number often varies; ranges 35 - 64 km/h, usually 40-45 km/h on road)

Fuel

650 L

Range

220 km (road), 110 km (cross-country)

Wall-Climbing

1.0 m (number often varies; minimum is 0.8 m)

Trench-Crossing

3.5 m (number often varies; ranges 3.0-4.0 m)

Max Gradient

45 degrees (100%)

Max Fording Depth

1.0 m

Armor

Hull:

 30 mm front

 20 mm sides

 20 mm rear

 15 mm roof

 16 mm floor

Turret:

 20 mm front

 20 mm sides

 30 mm rear

 15 mm roof

Smoke

None

Armament

1x KT-28

4x DT

Primary

76,2 mm KT-28 (70 Rounds)

Elevation: Manual, -5 to +25°

Traverse: Powered, 360°, 10.5°/s

Secondary

7,62 mm DT x4 (7938 Rounds)

Coaxial:

 Elevation: Manual, -20 to +30°

 Traverse: As Primary Armament, 10° left and right without turning turret

Hull Turrets:

 Elevation: Manual, -30 to +30°

 Traverse: Manual, 10° left and 20° right without turning turret

Rear Turret:

 Elevation: Manual, -20 to +30°

 Traverse: As Primary Armament, 10° left and right without turning turret



SOURCES

1 - https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Т-28

2 - Soviet Tanks in Combat 1941-1945: The T-28, T-34, T-34-85 and T-44 Medium Tanks by Steven J. Zaloga, Jim Kinnear, Andrey Aksenov & Aleksandr Koshchavtsev 

3 -  http://tankarchives.blogspot.com/2013/10/t-28-vs-t-29.html

4 - http://tankarchives.blogspot.com/2016/10/beefy-t-28.html

5 - http://t28ehkranami.narod.ru/t-28_foto.html

6 - https://www.jaegerplatoon.net/TANKS6.htm

7 - http://www.saunalahti.fi/~ejuhola/7.62/t28.html

8 - Russian Tanks of World War II - Stalin's Armoured Might by Tim Bean and William Fowler

9 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R3ezSW_xCHg

10 - http://tankarchives.blogspot.com/2014/12/red-army-tank-armament-norms-1934.html

11 - http://the.shadock.free.fr/Surviving_Panzers.html

12 - http://www.tanks-encyclopedia.com/ww2/soviet/soviet_T28.php

13 - Steel Fortress: The Russian T-28 Medium Tank by Mikhail Baryatinsky and Jim Kinnear

 

 

 

 

 

Edited by kleinerPanzer
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