Redberseker

OTO Melara OF-40 variants and derivatives

OTO Melara OF-40

281lvo.jpg   OF40_2.jpg

                                                        of40_sh.jpg

 

 

Primary Armament: OTO Melara 105mm cannon

Secondary Armament: 2 x 12,7 MGs

Armor: Composite and sloped design

Speed: 60km/h

Ammo load: 57 shells for the cannon, 5700 cartridges for the MGs

Suspensions: torsion bars

Engine: MTU MB 838 Ca M500 V-10 830 PS (819 hp, 610 kW)

Weight/power ratio: 18,24 hp/t

 

Development

During the seventies, the Italian company OTO Melara manufactured 720 copies of the Leopard 1 combat tank, under license from the company Krauss-Maffei in West Germany. During the decade, therefore, a good familiarity was gained with the design and production of heavy armored tanks and the idea was born, among the top of the company, to build a brand new tank. The availability of the first machines was scheduled for 1980. As established by the contract, FIAT was responsible for supplying the power unit and transmission, while OTO Melara had overall responsibility for the design of the armored vehicle, the armament, the technical solutions and etc. In 1980 the first prototype was ready which successfully passed a first test cycle. It was called "OF-40": the two letters are the initials of the companies involved and the number indicates the weight in tons empty. It represented the first tank fully conceived in Italy since the end of the Second World War, given that the country had entrusted the importation or production under license of German and US vehicles (mainly M60 Patton).

Italian_Leopard-I.png

 

Techical features

 

Armor and suspensions

As derived from the similarity of Leopard 1, the OF-40 shared most of its components. The hull and turret construction was obtained completely by welding steel plates: the armor was inclined, especially on the front side, to provide better ballistic protection. The hull rested on a rolling train composed on the side of seven double wheels bearing with rubberized tread, five upper guidacing rollers, a rear drive wheel and a front idler wheel, which adjusts the tension of the tracks: each main wheel was equipped with its own torsion bar suspension and both the first three, and the last two were also constrained to hydraulic shock absorbers and locking devices, in order to reduce their vertical travel while traveling. The adopted tracks, with a central tooth guide, had links joined with metal hinges and rubber bushings and had a tread with rubberized studs; a 15 mm thick sheet covered the upper part of the rolling train.

 

Engine

The engine system, located in the rear compartment of the hull, was a four-stroke diesel MTU MB 838 Ca M500 10-cylinder V, supercharged turbocharged and delivering 830 hp at 2 200 rpm, the same used by Leopard 1. It was served by two tanks capable of a total of 1 000 liters of diesel oil, recessed on the sides. The generated torque was transformed by a special converter, allowing the transit in the planetary gearbox with four forward and two reverse gears: each gear was selectable through electro-hydraulic stress, controlled by a lever in the driver's seat. The hydraulic-mechanical ZF transmission was not directly connected to the engine, since an independent clutch was placed: this was intended to facilitate the starting of the wagon, starting only the engine without stressing the starter even with the transmission. In turn, the transmission was in contact with the multiple lateral discs of the drive wheels by means of serrated collars.

Since the OF-40 was expected to operate in a desert or tropical environment, the air-cooling apparatus was particularly cared for and upgraded, the filters were more than the western standards, air conditioning was implemented for the crew and special lubricant employees, in order to minimize the infiltration of dust and sand in the engine compartment.

 

Armament

The turret housed the main armament, a 105 mm long 52-gauge cannon that the OTO Melara had developed from the 105 mm British Royal Ordnance L7. The cannon was a ribbed core, without a stabilizer, with a vertical sliding shutter downwards and a spring recuperator; he could fire all NATO ammunition (high explosive, piercing, HEAT, HESH, machine-gun and similar); the loading was manual and the shot was manual, both electric, with a maximum rate of fire equal to nine strokes per minute. Back in the battery, the shutter opened and expelled the spent cartridge case in a container below. The raising of the cannon (from -9 ° to + 20 °) and the tilting of the turret were enslaved to an electro-hydraulic system, which allowed to cover the entire horizon in 17 seconds and 7 ° of raised per second: it was of Norm used by the gunner but, if necessary, the truck could take over and direct loading and firing the piece. The offensive equipment was completed by two 7.62 mm or 12.7 mm machine guns of your choice: one coaxial to the gun, the second mountable on a support placed in front of the commander's hatchback. The tappet consisted of a telescopic sight provided by the Officine Galileo, the OG14 of eight magnifications to be used for the coaxial machine gun and the HEAT, HESH and APDS grenades; it was coupled to an Alenia VAQ-33 laser rangefinder graduated from 400 to 9 995 meters and an electronic ballistic calculator. Finally, the wagon had two groups of four one-time smoke-throwing mortars, screwed with a fixed elevation to the rear sides of the turret and operated by an electric control. The reserve on board counted fifty-seven grenades, of which fifteen were ready for use and placed in a rack fixed to the rotating basket of the tower, the other forty-two stowed in the left front hull. In addition, up to 5 700 cartridges for machine guns were transportable.

 

Cross section of 105mm gun armed OF 40 Mk.2 turret with false colouration of gun, seating, optics, and armour.

Kh6569z.png

 

Crew, survivability, aim and night systems

The crew consisted of four men and had an intercom system: in the front right hull there was the pilot, who for the external vision used three periscopes in armored jacket. If necessary, the central one could be replaced with an Alenia infrared night vision. He entered his place through a door that opened to the left and had an oval escape door, carved into the floor. In the turret there were the commander (front right), the gunner (rear right) and the loader (left), who accessed the vehicle from the hatch door opening towards the rear; the seat of these was elevated by a hydraulic system and could be lowered quickly by pressing a pedal. In place of the dome, 8 periscopes had been fixed on the roof, of which any one could be replaced by a night viewer Alenia; at the exclusive disposal of the commander was also a stabilized day / night viewer, produced by Officine Galileo in collaboration with the French company SFIM: also equipped with an image resolver for the night, allowing the capercar to locate a target and pass the data of detection to the gunner or, if desired, to engage him in person. The gunner took advantage of an Alenia C215 articulated telescopic viewer with 8 magnifications and a wide 7.5 ° fire, fixed to an M114 support that was integral to the carriage, while the loader had two fixed periscopes, facing one forward and the other to the left; in the roof above his seat there was a circular door, which opened to the rear.

The survival of the crew was guaranteed not only by the armor, but also by a fire protection system and the NBC protection complex. The first consisted of a series of cylinders, filled with a chemical agent, placed in the fighting chamber; by means of thin pipes, they were connected to different steam nozzles distributed in the engine compartment: in the event of a fire, the system was activated at a temperature of 180 ° C. The NBC overpressurized system was located between the pilot's place and the ammunition storage space. A large fan drew fresh air from the outside and directed it into a filter, where the largest particles of a chemical, biological or nuclear nature were collected; these scraps were continuously ejected from the wagon by a second fan, so that the collector in the NBC group did not become clogged.

 

Weigth, speed and other details

Overall, the OF-40 weighed 45.50 tons in combat set-up; the overall length (including the cannon) reached 9.222 meters, that of the single hull at 6.893 meters. The height was 2,450 meters and the width measured 3,510 meters. The vehicle reached a maximum road speed of 60 km / h and the autonomy on the same surface was 600 kilometers. Mobility and maneuverability were excellent: he could face ditches up to 3 meters wide, steps up to 1.10 meters high, fords of 1.2 meters without preparation. Amphibious capacities increased to 2.25 meters with the use of a hydraulic immersion system; if it was then added a snorkel, the cart was able to overcome deep submerged sections up to 4 meters. In these cases two electric-powered bilge pumps were activated, one in the engine compartment and one in the combat chamber, each capable of expelling 120 liters of water per minute. He was also able to manage 60% gradients and 30% gradients.

 

Variants

OF-40 MK. 1
Basic model, described in the previous paragraph, whose designation is retroactive.

 

OF-40 MK. 2A
Compared to the basic version, the aiming system had an OG14 L2A telescopic viewfinder with 8 magnifications, a stabilizer for the 105 mm gun and wind speed sensors, the propellant temperature of the grenades and the ambient temperature. The periscope of the commander, adjustable for day or night vision, was self-stabilizing and was enslaved to the fire during firing operations; also the gunner had a richer endowment, since it had a 7 and 14 magnification observation apparatus that incorporated a telescopic sight of 8 magnifications and a laser rangefinder, coaxial to the piece. Finally, an LLLTV camera was installed on the right outer side of the mantle, whose monitor was placed in the turret. The OF-40 MK. 1 were brought to these standards once the delivery of the second batch was completed.

 

OF-40 MK. 2A1

 

The prototype of the OF-40 MK. 2A1

OF-40_MK_2A.jpg


At the end of the eighties the project of the OF-40 turned out to be less competitive because of the armament, which at international level had stabilized on 120 mm pieces and so was proposed a version equipped with a weapon of that caliber, from insert into an enlarged turret very similar to that of the Ariete in design. Other improvements included minor changes to the hull, a 1,000 hp supercharged engine system, a fully automatic transmission with electro-hydraulic transmission (four forward gears, two reverse gears), a water cooling system with two air-cooled radiators, with fans thermostatically controlled designed for desert conditions; to reduce infrared detection, the cooling air was mixed with the exhaust gases and ejected to the sides of the rear hull. The existence of this machine was announced in 1993 and the OTO assembled a partial prototype, but the project did not collect the hoped-for success and the development was halted in 1997.

 

Derivatives

OTO Melara OTOMATIC: self-propelled anti-aircraft aircraft with a 76 mm cannon in the turret, appropriately modified.
The OTOMATIC self-propelled was self-propelled anti-aircraft developed as a private venture of Oto Melara. It is based on a 76mm Super Rapid cannon (note that the OTOMATIC prototype was built in 1984 but the Naval Super Rapid did not come online before 1988), mounted on the OF-40 hull. It has 100 shots available in a magazine of 25 shots, another 45 in the turret, 30 in the hull, with lift between -5 and +60.

It was mainly designed to take down helicopters before they launched their counter-missile missiles from 3 to 4 km. The thing was feasible, because the 35 mm Gepard was at the limit with its 3.5 km of useful range.

The 76 mm cannon's range is instead of 6 km in the anti-aircraft mode and the availability of special piercing bullets makes it possible self-defense against tanks and armored vehicles. It has 2 separate radars for search and tracking, as on the Gepard and the M247 DIVAD, placed above the turret.

 

OTOMATIC with OF 40 hull version                                                                                                                  OTOMATIC with Leopard 1 hull version
LsX8b0UNtRuKPSz2i4zRjXEKtMx9fQcNUJhrqZ9_ OTOMATIC-76-62.jpg

 

OTO Melara Palmaria
 

Self-propelled artillery conceived and produced during the second half of the seventies by Italy.

 

Palmaria_Oto_Melara_sel-propelled_howitz


Hull
The self-propelled artillery Palmaria uses the hull of the OF-40 as a mobile platform, to which some changes have been made. In place of the original 10-cylinder engine and 830 hp of power, the rear compartment houses a diesel MB 837 Ka-500 8-cylinder V-turbocharged turbocharged, delivering 750 hp and served by a tank capable of 800 liters. This German branch motor is equipped with a torque converter and benefits from a Renk planetary gearbox with four speeds and one reverse gear; the shaft connects it to the rear drive wheels. The presence of an auxiliary electric engine provide to move the turret and thus save fuel of the main propeller.

 

The rolling train consists of seven load-bearing wheels with rubberized treads, each with a torsion bar and a hydraulic shock absorber; on the upper side there are pivoted five rollers. The drive wheel is rear and the front drive wheel is also used to adjust the tensioning of the 584 mm wide tracks.

Armor
Regard to passive protection, the hull recorded a decrease in the thickness of the steel armor and the turret (heavy 12.5 tons in combat order) was built with aluminum alloy plates, that
 provides protection against small arms fire and artillery shell splinters.


Armament
The primary armament installed in a turret consists of a 155/39 howitzer (155 mm of caliber for a length of the barrel equal to 39 times the caliber), piece of artillery derived from the same caliber FH-70. The howitzer is provided with a two-light stop brake and a blow-out ejector; the workpiece lift is between -5 ° and +70 ° and is performed with a hydraulic mechanism, but manual systems are also available. The tilt, obtained by rotating the tower, is equal to 360 °. The load of projectiles that can be loaded is 30 shots, of which 23 are stored in racks arranged in the turret for a ready use: all types of NATO 155 mm ammunition can be used, from lighting grenades to HE ("High Explosive") grenades fragmentation. The loading can be done either by hand or by a semi-automatic device: when a shot is fired, the barrel returns to a pre-adjusted +2 ° raise, the breech opens and another shot is inserted, behind which the hand is placed charge of launch; the shutter closes and the firing cycle can start again. The nominal range of the hobbit reaches 24,700 meters but it can be increased to 30,000 meters using special rocket-propelled grenades and a 45.5-pound explosive charge. Thanks to the automatic loading systems the Palmaria can fire three shots in thirty seconds or one shot every fifteen seconds; the preferable rate of fire, however, is the one with a cadence of one grenade per minute. The offensive equipment is complemented by a 7.62 mm or 12.7 mm machine gun installed at the right-hand door access door (with anti-aircraft function), and by four electrically operated fume guns, which can be added to the front side area of the tower.

 

Crew

The crew assigned to a single self-propelled vehicle has five elements: in the hull, on the right, the pilot sat. The turret is placed in a turret, also called to use the machine gun when necessary, a gunner and a loader, while a porgitore takes care of passing the launch charges. Overall the Palmaria is a weapon system over 11 meters long, more than 3 meters tall and heavy in combat order 46 tons. The autonomy is nevertheless very wide, equal to 400 kilometers or 500 kilometers on asphalt road. The top speed on the road reaches 60 km/h and mobility is generally good: the self-propelled can master mounds 3 meters wide and vertical obstacles high up to 1.15 meters; the ford abilities, equal to 1 meter, can be increased to 4 meters after a short preparation.

 

Edited by Redberseker
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4 minutes ago, BlueBeta said:

The otomatic description is totally wrong

What's the error?

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Fixed, I had not noticed it, I confused with the other self-propelled artillery prototype, thanks.

Edited by Redberseker

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Sbav ..

Credo che questi OF 40 possano essere i nostri main tank nell'era 6 molto tranquillamente, ha tutti i requisiti chiesti dalla gaijin, non è troppo moderno e li mette in stretta competizione con i nostri carri attuali

 

english version:

I think those OF 40 could be implemented at tier 6 from Gaijin becouse it respect theyr standard, isnt too modern and are strictly related with our modern tank (like t64a and Mbt/Kpz)

 

Of 40 and his other 2 version plus the AA will be a evry nice add into the game

Edited by HitPirate
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21 hours ago, HitPirate said:

english version:

I think those OF 40 could be implemented at tier 6 from Gaijin becouse it respect theyr standard, isnt too modern and are strictly related with our modern tank (like t64a and Mbt/Kpz)

Definitely yes ;)

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nice. so a modified Leo 1 chassis, new turret, and Italian modified L7. the native MBT.

 

you know i wish people would just add 1 to the cannon's name. we'd be on like L7A7 or something.

 

 

so what ammo does the OTO Melara Palmaria have on that 155? please have more than HE and smoke.

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I foresee the Otomatic will cause much pain, if they include it. :vanga:

42 minutes ago, Serpiko82 said:

Bringing an Otomatic to an Air show... Them fools. 

 

Next step? Bringing a starving tiger to a lambs beauty contest? 

 

Why is your mind so sadistic, Serp? 

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On 17-12-2017 at 8:59 AM, Admiral_Aruon said:

nice. so a modified Leo 1 chassis, new turret, and Italian modified L7. the native MBT.

 

you know i wish people would just add 1 to the cannon's name. we'd be on like L7A7 or something.

 

 

so what ammo does the OTO Melara Palmaria have on that 155? please have more than HE and smoke.

Illum, not sure about anything else. on wiki ammo is not mentioned. but in theory any type on 155mm NATO rounds could be fired.

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On 17/12/2017 at 8:59 AM, Admiral_Aruon said:

so what ammo does the OTO Melara Palmaria have on that 155? please have more than HE and smoke.

There's a 155 mm laser-guided(by an infantry squad or helicopter) HEAT round : the M712 copperhead, but i don't know if it's useful in direct fire. Also the Palmaria seems to have also a negative depression of -4!
 

 

Edited by ANYangeloVV
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8 hours ago, _Condottiero_ said:

For what i know about it, the project started in early 80s and was "revealed" in 1993 ... they made like Gaijin a devblog saying "new mbt Soontm" with the model ready XD

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9 hours ago, _Condottiero_ said:

Image result for palmaria self propelled artillery

 

I've never seen this before. That's a rather large gun. It seems the first prototype was completed in 1981 so it's definitely a possibility for inclusion and something interesting at that.  

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2 hours ago, Vand3rz said:

Image result for palmaria self propelled artillery

 

I've never seen this before. That's a rather large gun. It seems the first prototype was completed in 1981 so it's definitely a possibility for inclusion and something interesting at that.  

I think the gun is heavier than the rest of the vehicle :D

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18 hours ago, _Condottiero_ said:

https://www.forecastinternational.com/archive/disp_pdf.cfm?DACH_RECNO=319

I don't know why but here Palmaria is "Palmara")

 

9 hours ago, Vand3rz said:

Image result for palmaria self propelled artillery

 

I've never seen this before. That's a rather large gun. It seems the first prototype was completed in 1981 so it's definitely a possibility for inclusion and something interesting at that.  

Did you know that it's an SPG that doesn't fire any AP shell?

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43 minutes ago, BlueBeta said:

 

Did you know that it's an SPG that doesn't fire any AP shell?

Maybe there are any Nato anti-tank shells for 155mm, but whatever I think 155mm HE can be useful against almost all tanks, especially when you fire 3 shots one by one)

 

On 02.02.2018 at 7:35 PM, ANYangeloVV said:

There's a 155 mm laser-guided(by an infantry squad or helicopter) HEAT round : the M712 copperhead, but i don't know if it's useful in direct fire. Also the Palmaria seems to have also a negative depression of -4!

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On 16/2/2018 at 9:03 PM, BlueBeta said:

 

Did you know that it's an SPG that doesn't fire any AP shell?

If the HE has high filler, can do high damages IMHO.

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