IIIIOz

FRB - General Tips and Tricks

THE ROUND TABLE
Hello Gentlemen,
As we all know FRB is where the tactics rise, so I decided to make a corner for sharing all of our ideas together.
Of course it's not easy to overcome this learning curve only with words, it takes years to train someone or yourself and
people are sometimes getting confused about gathering intel for feeling themselves ready in the beginning and loosing their interest about
acting proper. With lots of manual summaries and personal experiences that we can put here, we may help others and ourselves when we doing it.

We can try to summarize some tactics and tips here that we gathered around and mix them with our aviation background from other sims or real life experiences,
please do the same with short explanations with adding references under them,so we will encourage ourselves together and trigger our flying passion for
our future virtual sorties. We will always find someone better than us but we can share what we got here to learn together as a community
that belongs to the hardest edge of this virtual simulation.


It's easy to find lots of information around but being able to read it directly from this forum will be always more effective.

Urgent detail gonna be short explanations with divided sections those not need to be followed each other so when we make this topic little big bigger, we can follow the
titles easily. If you can use the same type of format, it may so useful for everyone.


PART I

I will start with the great list of words;

'Dicta Boelcke.'
1. Try to secure advantages before attacking. If possible keep the sun behind you.
2. Always carry through an attack when you have started it.
3. Fire only at close range and only when your opponent is properly in your sights.
4. Always keep your eye on your opponent, and never let yourself be deceived by ruses.
5. In any form of attack it is essential to assail your opponent from behind. 
6. If your opponent dives on you, do not try to evade his onslaught, but fly to meet it.
7. When over the enemy's lines never forget your own line of retreat.
8. For the Staffel: Attack on principle in groups of four or six. When the fight breaks up into a series
of single combats, take care that several do not go for one opponent.

-----------

GROUND SCHOOL and FIRST SOLO

JUDGEMENT
This is just a game, you will respawn or you will be able to join an another fight without losing your life but if you want to stay alive and score with minimum risk,
you need to let your prey go sometimes. In some situations you will need to retreat, in air combat, that not means you are a coward, that means you tried your chance
and couldn't turn the tables or seems like you will enter a fight that you can't win, in that exact point, retreat and go for an another sortie next time. Focus on your
Kill/Death Ratio rather then Victory.

Close fight gives your bandit a chance to shoot you, if you really don't need to get closer, make him a surprise, main idea is not giving a chance to your rival to fight
with you under equal conditions. Gun range head on is one of the worst attack moves ever, don't put yourself in a condition like that.

COMMUNICATION
In mid air, all you need is short and effective communication so BREVITY designed for that, if you give more info than needed or talk too much when flying with your team,
you will confuse them and steal their concentration rapidly, this will directly effect your presence.

Basic Brevity can be found here:
BREVITY CODE

THE PIT
It's always better to get familiar with the airframe before the first flight, so whenever you unlocked a new one, I strongly suggest that go in test flight
and push the limits of the bird. Get info about the pit (even we have the general information at top left about IAS/ALT/HDG, those are definitely not enough)

You can use signature fighters for the basic idea of each nation.
-BF109E , FW190A5
-Spitfire MK I
-P40

-A6M2
-I-163

(Will take screenshots with informations for each soon)

CONTROL SURFACES
Remember the airframe is not a car, it floats in mid air and directly interacts with every factor from the environment around.
Basicly, plane uses it's control surfaces to control airflow around it.

Primary:
Ailerons (ROLL),
elevators (PITCH),

Secondary:
rudders (YAW),
flaps and slats (Secondary PITCH and ACCELERATION if available) and
trims (FINE ADJUSTMENTS FOR CONTROL SURFACES if available)

Different altitudes and speeds effects these surfaces and airframe reacts differently.
You need to find out these limits for each plane due to their aerodynamic purposes.

Detailed information can be found here:
Secondary Flight Controls - Rudder
Secondary Flight Controls - Flaps
Secondary Flight Controls - Trim

NAVIGATION
You need to check 6 main gauges all the time, so you can draw a picture of your position in mid air, you need to know how is the airframe doing.

ALTIMETER
ARTIFICIAL HORIZON
ACCELLEROMETER
VERTICAL MOVEMENT INDICATOR
MANIFOLD AND BOOST GAUGES
HEADING INDICATOR

Try to operate without using the map, guess your position, be familiar with the map.

ARMAMENT
Heavy armament comes with heavy weight and short term slow acceleration which leads to higher operating altitude.
Every plane has it's own food chain and playground, using an airframe outside of it's purposes will guide you to a fatal failure.
Use your ammo wisely, practice your convergence and use your MGs for calculating the lead, CANNONS for real damage.

FUEL
Fuel effects your weight and playtime (availability) with range, you don't need to take more than 30mins of fuel for fighters in a FRB match.
Maps are small and you will need to RTB more than any other game modes. Decide how much fuel you need carefully.
Fuel management will increase your playtime, and using WEP more than needed will decrease it. Speed costs you bit.

TAXI AND TAKE OFF
Most of the fighters are tail draggers in WT, don't focus on your nose when taxiing, check sides and use the runway as a reference, place your bird
in the middle and lean to sides for better vision if needed. Don't pass 50km or 30Knots when taxiing, take it slow, line up your airframe, deploy take off flaps to
help the bird to get more lift in slow speeds and pushing the nose down, prepare yourself for the P-Factor (That's the main reason why you shifting to sides even lined up with the runway before moving due to reaction of the propeller with airflow in slow speeds, it turns in a single direction and forces you to move into because plane has not enough lift yet to overcome that) take it slow, tail wheel will hover first and your nose will go down but you will still be moving on your front wheels with more airflow passing through your wings, you will counter that drag with your rudders and keep the bird level after that, watch out for the propeller not to hit on the ground, pull the nose slightly up and you will try to gain more lift for being able to float in mid air. Give yourself more time to take off, until you know the minimum take off speeds for each aircraft.

LANDING
Slow down to 250kmh and 100Meters AGL before lining up 2Km to airfield, that will be your finals, deploy combat flaps, you can only deploy your landing flaps
and gears safely below 200kmh, keep the bird around 180kmh and depends on your plane, stay at minimum 150kmh, lower speeds will cause stall and suck you through the ground,
before 150meters to runway, aim to the end of it, put your pipper at the other end of the runway and let the front wheels contact the ground. Keep the bird level, apply brakes
nicely like tapping on em, wait until tail wheel to contact the ground, raise flaps if you can for more stall that will act like a brake for you, pull the nose up all the way,
increase the brake amount and let the bird move below 50kmh, Hold the brakes all the way until stop.

 

Will be continued...

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Fletchman's ACM Axioms!

Literally Rules to Lives by!

 

Don't Climb into a Fight!
If you find yourself climbing into a fight you are almost always in the process of making a mistake. The enemy is almost sure to have the advantage in energy-state, and therefore have the initiative. It is generally very unwise to "force" an engagement from an inferior energy state.
 
Attack from a position of advantage!
Air Combat is War! Arena Combat is not the place for genteel dueling or gentlemanly "level playing field" flying. There are plenty of "Dueling Ladders" available for those so inclined. The Arena is not the place for that kind of flying philosophy. Its about using all the advantages that God gave you to shoot down other planes without being shot down yourself. Plan your attacks carefully. Move into a favorable attack position first - don't just "jump into" that fur ball! Take advantage of "blind spots" and distraction opposition to score quick kills. Never give the opposition "an even break", because he certainly wouldn't cut you any slack if the position was reversed!

 

Attack with surprise on your side!
There is no law against cunning. Look for setting up a surprise attack on a target whenever possible. Look for situations where the target may have poor SA; move into blind spots and sneak up on the target!

 

With a superior energy state go high
With an inferior energy state go low

If you have the better energy state you have the advantage. Stay above your opponent if at all possible. After completing a gun pass its usually a big mistake to "go low" to reengage. Going high conserves energy. Going "low" is good when on the defensive. You are in trouble, the most important factor is to keep your airspeed up. If you are in an inferior energy state and by attempting to "go high" you will be cutting your airspeed - you're a sitting duck! Keeping up your airspeed allows you to maneuver more crisply. And who knows - your opponent could make a mistake, which you could exploit with a bit of maneuverability.

 

When it Doubt - Go Vertical!
In air combat, especially in WWII planes, its almost always a good idea to use the vertical as much as possible. If you have the Energy level to "go high", its rarely a mistake to do so. Don't stick to "flat" turns in a dogfight! That will lead to very high insurance premiums.

 

Eternal Vigilance or Eternal Rest!
The Most important factor in Air Combat is to see the opponent! Spot him first (and his friends!), keep him in sight at all times. Whatever system you use for views, (castle switches, keyboard etc) learn it backwards and forwards before you do anything else! Scan your views at least once every 15 seconds even in a "quiet" sky. Otherwise the first indication of danger could be bullets ripping through your plane.

 

Learn how to count!
Don't attack outnumbered unless you have the energy advantage. The worse you are outnumbered the bigger the advantage should be. If you are badly outnumbered you only have to miscalculate the energy state of one of the enemy gaggle to end up going home via parachute.

 

Calculate firing lead before opening fire!
Don't fire first and ask questions later! Try to gauge the "Kentucky Windage" before you pull the trigger. Otherwise you might find yourself flying around without ammunition real fast.

 

Short Range! Short Bursts!
When shooting, leave the Water hose in the Garden. If you missed the target, be a man and admit it! Don't try to "walk" the tracers into the target plane, because ammo doesn't grow on trees! Short bursts initially, then if you really have the range down, fire for effect! Generally shots over 300 yards are waste of time against a hard maneuvering plane. Get in close and hit hard! If the target is flying straight and level, shots to twice your convergence range are allowed. Outside of that you are most likely wasting ammo unless you are flying a plane like the P38 which has no gun convergence. Remember that Cannon will "drop" faster than machine guns at very long range.

 

Get "Out of Plane" when being fired on!
No that doesn't mean bail out! When evading fire think aileron and rudder - not just elevator! The infamous "flat break turn" is the easiest defensive move to track with guns. That is an "in plane" maneuver, the easiest maneuver to maintain a gun solution on! Make the guy work for it. Use Jinking rudder moves and aileron rolls to evade fire. If you can force the guy to pull negative G's to fire, so much the better. He will be seeing "red" real soon.

 

Avoid "Dead Six"!
Its generally wiser to attack slightly from the side than to attack from a dead-on Six O'clock position. The targets presents a very small cross section from "Dead Six", which makes for a difficult shot except at point-blank range. At ranges over 150 yards, try to attack slightly from the side. This present a much larger cross section and involves a minimal gun deflection angle. It also helps avoid collisions!

 

Think Energy - Not Stick
There is an old saying "Colonels think tactics - Generals think Logistics". Well Fighter Pilots a similar adage. "Average Pilots think Stick - Good Pilots think Energy!" Even when in a tight fur ball always keep relative energy states in mind. This will allow you to evaluate what he can do, and what you can do with more accuracy. Always try to keep that last ounce of Energy in your back pocket as your "Ace in the Hole". You may need to play that card sooner than you think!

 

Turn into the attacker - not away!
Well this one goes back to Boelke! By turning "into" the attack you are maneuvering so as to avoid allowing the guy to get on your "six". By turning "away" from the attack you are making it easy for the attacker to gain angle.

 

Lead turns - Its not just for the vertical anymore!
Many pilots know that in the eternal battle for "angle", the "lead turn" is a useful tool. But they forget that lead turning is also permitted in the horizontal, not just the vertical. That is: lateral separation can be exploited just as easily with a lead turn as vertical separation.

 

Remember the "Rule of 45"!
When making a energy based rear quarter attack with a fair amount of closure on target, follow the target for about 45 degrees of "break". If you haven't killed him by then its time to Zoom and do another pass! Following that break turn too much will surrender your Energy advantage, and could lead to disastrous overshoots. Its generally a poor idea to follow an "out of plane" break down if you have a fair amount of closure on target. If the target breaks with a Split-S or similar maneuver (such as a slice-back) its usually a bad idea to follow, since your high speed will actually work against you as the target breaks low. Instead establish a lag pursuit situation or go vertical to establish a dominant altitude advantage with vertical separation. Then close in for another pass. Remember it is often takes several energy passes to "wear down" the targets energy state to the point where the kill is assured!

 

Lag Pursuit with superior Energy.
Lead Pursuit with equal or inferior Energy.

When attempting to gain gun angle on a target use geometry to close on target who has equal or higher energy by "cutting the corner" of his turn. That is, anticipate his flight path and and "lead" it. Lag Pursuit avoids problems with gun deflection and closure. Instead of flying straight at the target and taking a high deflection shot at his turning plane with a large amount of closure, simply "lag" out side his turn. That is, often you deliberately turn outside his circle, going high. This conserves energy advantage and sets up a more promising shot when you re-engage.

 

Always Fly Aggressively!
When in the Air, always think aggressively - even when you are on the defensive. One of the skills of all successful pilots is a basic killer instinct. Flying in a tentative or indecisive fashion will just get you killed. A good pilot will use your hesitation against you. While foolhardy recklessness is pointless, the good pilot is the master of the calculated risk. Building the judgment to know when a risk is justified is a key to success.

 

Know your Plane
Understand the strengths of your plane, and also the planes you are flying against. Their strengths and weaknesses should be etched in your mind. A good pilot knows how to exploit the strong points of his ride, and exploit the weak points of the target plane to get the victory. Don't fly "against" your plane by asking it to something its not capable of. You will die.

 

 

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PART II

 

ACM

 

 

Aileron Roll

The Aileron roll is accomplished simply with a lateral (side to side) movement of the stick, and represents on of the most fundamental menouvers in ACM.

It should be noted that when the aircraft rolls inverted in a pure aileron roll (no other control surfaces other than the ailerons are used), the aircraft will drop in altitude. This is due to the fact that when inverted (at a 0 angle of attack), the aircraft's wings do not generate enough lift to counteract the force of gravity. An experienced pilot will use his rudder and elevator to coordinate the roll so as to maintain his altitude and vector.

aileron-roll.jpg

 

 

Loop

The Loop is another basic componant of ACM. However, note that rarely should it implemented in full form during an actual combat situation. Occasionally, one will find himself in a continuous loop chasing an enemy pilot, or trying to escape an opponant who's E is too low to follow through. In other occasions, it will be used to maintain a position while rondezvousing with friendlies, or to look for possible threats on one's distant six.

Avoid intentionally initiating or entering a continuous loop when engaging enemy aircraft. The menouver will innevitable drain your E, and put you in a poor energy situation should more enemy aircraft enter the area. Simply be aware of what the loop is, and the fact that when broken down further, it's parts form the backbown of vertically oriented ACM.

loop.jpg

 

Split - S

The Split - S is a means of changing direction rapidly, efficiently, with a significant increase in velocity due to a trade in altitude for speed. The pilot simply inverts the aircraft, and pulls back on the stick. When the nose once again meets the horizon, the pilot levels out, and continues on to his new destination. Use caution, however, when flying at low altitudes. It is all too easy to lose one's sense of altitude in a dogfight, and auger while trying to trade what little altitude one has for more speed.

split-s.jpg

 

 

Break Turn

The Break Turn is a flat, hard turn to the left or right, intended to spoil an opponant's firing solution. The pilot aileron rolls to either direction, and then pulls hard on the stick in an attempt to change his vector (direction of travel) as quickly as possible. However, this is a short term solution at best.

ALWAYS break into the direction from which the attack is coming

breakturn.jpg

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Immelmann Turn (Half Loop)

 

 

The Immelmann Turn (sometimes referred to as the Half Loop) is essentially an energy efficient means of changing direction, trading speed for altitude.

  1. Pull into a short, vertical climb
  2. Aileron roll until the top of the aircraft is oriented towards the direction you want to go
  3. Pull back on the stick until the aircraft is inverted, and heading in that direction.
  4. Aileron roll until the aircraft is rightside up again.

Though this menouver is energy efficient, it CAN present your aircraft as an easy target. Use it with care, and in situations where you are not in immediate danger of attack.

immelman.jpg

 

 

Will be continued...

 

TEAMWORK

 

rotte.jpg

(1) Flight Leader Responsibilities:

  1. Communicate with Gruppe Leader, Forward Air Controllers, your Wingman, etc.
  2. Keep yourself and your wingman alive and get into position to kill the enemy.
  3. In most situations, the Flight Leader will be the shooter when engaging the enemy.

(2) Flight Leader's Wingman Responsibilities:

  1. Follow the Flight Leader.
  2. Your job is primarily defensive. Keep your Flight Leader's tail clear. Avoid the desire to break formation and engage enemy aircraft. That's not your job. Let the Flight leader focus on killing.
  3. Stay off the radio unless you have a 6 call, a bandit sighting, a technical problem, answering queries from the Flight Leader, or something else that is important to the combat situation.

 

 

schwarm.gif

(1) Flight Leader Responsibilities:

  1. Communicate with Gruppe Leader, your Wingman, and your Rotte 2 Leader.
  2. Keep your Schwarm alive and get into position to kill the enemy.
  3. Give your Rotte 2 Leader directions. Normally the Rotte 2 Leader should stay with you. In some situations you may want his Element to cover you while you attack.
  4. If you ask your Rotte 2 Leader to cover your attack, and your attack fails and you end up on the defensive, drag the enemy toward the Rotte 2 Leader and ask him to attack.
     

(2) Flight Leader's Wingman Responsibilities:

  1. Follow the Flight Leader. If the Flight Leader dies, follow the Rotte 2 Leader. If the Rotte 2 Leader dies, then you become Section Leader.
  2. Your job is primarily defensive. Keep your Flight Leader's tail clear. Let the Flight leader focus on killing.
  3. Stay off the radio unless you have a 6 call, a bandit sighting, a technical problem, or something else that is important to the combat situation.
     

(3) Rotte 2 Leader Responsibilities:

  1. Follow the Flight Leader. If the Flight Leader dies, you become Flight Leader.
  2. Keep your Wingman alive and get into a position to kill the enemy.
  3. Communicate with the Flight Leader and your Wingman.
  4. If the Flight Leader asks you to cover him while attacking, stay near him but above to protect him from any attacking Bandits. Do not attack the Flight Leader's target unless he asks for assistance. In that case go in and save his ass!
     

(4) Rotte 2 Leader's Wingman Responsibilities:

  1. Follow the Rotte 2 Leader. If the Rotte 2 Leader dies, follow the Flight Leader. If the Flight Leader then dies, follow the Flight Leader's Wingman. If the Flight Leader's Wingman dies, you are in some deep shit, and should probably go home. :)
  2. Your job is primarily defensive. Keep your leader's tail clear. Let the leader focus on killing.
  3. Stay off the radio unless you have a 6 call, a bandit sighting, a technical problem, or something else that is important to the combat situation.
     

Those are the basics of the Shwärm. Due to the "Fog of War," it is not always possible to stay together in combat. Remember to use common sense. If you have a bandit on your 6 firing, you should worry about evading his fire rather than staying with your leader. However you had better warn your leader about that bandit! If you become separated, climb towards friendly territory and try to regroup.

 

http://www.thejg2.net/html/training.asp

 

Will be continued...

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Teamwork is always good and fun to be in it for me, flying solo is just boring and not realistic if you ask.

 

Anyway, stand by for future stuff, I hope it helps.

 

@Silencer - Who cares dude? Go shoot the guy who made that :)

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Thanks for the interest,

 

Btw, if you made similar topics about this subject, you can post their links here and people can shift through easily from here. Main idea is forming up everything we got

right here for a useful guide for anyone interested.

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 Thxx man .....lot to read ,hope i can learn some things ....only thing is reading or doing it in game are 2 difrent things

 

 I have a qeusten of landing ....i fly olmost in a straight line to the airstrip landingflaps down ,low speed 15 mp .

 Only every time i hit the ground my airplane buns back in to the air 1 meter again a copple of time,s

 Is this because to low speed whit the landing ...or do i hold my JS to much in poll up angle .

 

 Already thx if you aswer this ( ps hope you understand my englich)

 

 Greezz  NastyDog

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Good 1  :salute:

 

My own contribution will be this: FRB is hard, and it is supposed to be. No man or woman is meant to be performing flawlessly in this mode ever, but you may be good at doing what you are doing after logging a cpl 100 hours. The rewards you get are awesome!

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medal

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 Thxx man .....lot to read ,hope i can learn some things ....only thing is reading or doing it in game are 2 difrent things

 

 I have a qeusten of landing ....i fly olmost in a straight line to the airstrip landingflaps down ,low speed 15 mp .

 Only every time i hit the ground my airplane buns back in to the air 1 meter again a copple of time,s

 Is this because to low speed whit the landing ...or do i hold my JS to much in poll up angle .

 

 Already thx if you aswer this ( ps hope you understand my englich)

 

 Greezz  NastyDog

 

Not at all, I just copy and pasted most of em, cuz I have no time to make a new manual about everything.

 

Aim to the end of the other side of the runway with the pipper, be easy on the stick and let the bird stall to the runway slowly.

We have no ground effect currently that's why it's little bit moon physics now but you can overcome that easily.

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PART III

 

THE SPIN

 

In June of 1917, Lieuntenant Albert Louis Deullin of the Aviation Militaire wrote down the principles he had learned from combat fighting as a chasse pilot and leader in his "Pursuit Work in a Single-Seater". These ideas were adopted by the United States Army Air Service, and Deullin's doctrine became a part of the "French System" of instruction that American pilots received at their training fields in France. In the matters of airmanship, the Deullin monograph had the following to say about mastering the techniques of aerobatic maneuver:

As a pilot, he should be, before everything else, skillful in maneuvering. He can never practice too much aerial acrobatics; the short turn without change of height, climbing and descending spirals, nose spins, renversements," "retournements," looping the loop, short climbs at a very steep angle (What is known as a "chandelle" in French is the maneuver executed, when a plane has acquired an excessive speed in a dive, by pulling the plane into an angle greater than the best climbing angle. By using full motor a very steep ascent may thus be made until the machine begins to lose its speed, when a more normal angle is adopted. The height which can be gained in this manner will of course depend upon the machine and the amount of excess speed at the beginning of the ascent), dives and so on are the beginning of his period of instruction. He will only be ready for the "chasse" when he can execute them with precision relative to an adversary who manoeuvres likewise.

When Lieutenant-Colonel Hiram Bingham (renowned explorer of S. America, and eventual U.S. Senator) assumed command of the Third Aviation Instruction Center at Issoudun, France in the spring of 1918, the training of American airmen at the sprawling complex had been under way for many months. Although some streamlining of the "French System" of training was to take place, the American Air Service largely maintained the syllabus as originally set forth, and in his book An Explorer in the Air Service, Bingham described the daily routine that pilots experienced in their effort to qualify as single-seater or two-seater airmen at Issoudun. Much of the following details on aerobatic maneuver comes from Bingham's book and drawings, and his references as to the manner of service instruction conducted at the Center's various airfields was invaluable in preparing this article.

One of the first advanced maneuvers that American airmen trained on, was how to initiate and recover from a spin, or as the French called it the Vrille. For reasons that became obvious as the war progressed, it was deemed imperative that pilots learned how to master the spin as part of their basic training, before more advanced instruction continued. In letters home, Lt. Waldo Heinrichs describes doing a Vrille as chronicled in the book First To The Front, by Charles Woolley:

The first thing on the program was the Vrille, where you pitch with your wings spinning around the fuselage as an axis, very spectacular, but pretty easy so long as you don't lose your head. I climbed up to a thousand meters, cut the engine and after waiting a few seconds to lose speed, I yanked the stick into one comer and kicked the rudder over to the same side. The sensation is more or less like falling over a cliff in a bad dream. You rear up in the air, go over on your back and then start spinning round in a dive. To come out, you straighten your rudder, move the stick back to the center and push it slightly forward until you come out in a dive, when you can pull up the plane, put on the motor again, only it seems as if the earth were still spinning around underneath you.

Here's what Bingham wrote about the spin:

The spin or vrille was executed by throttling down the motor, holding up the nose of the plane until its flying speed as almost lost, then kicking the right rudder violently over and pulling the stick sharply back and to the right. This caused the plane to fall immediately into a vrille or "spinning nose dive." In order to come out of the spin, the rudder is at first placed exactly in neutral, then the stick is brought into the neutral position and pushed slowly forward. This causes the plane to stop spinning and start a straight nose dive. After flying speed has been attained by the nose dive, the plane is gradually pulled up to a level flying position and the throttle opened.

The chief danger is that the student in his excitement will over-control and send the plane into a reverse spin or else will push the stick too far forward and turn a somersault, coming out of the spin on his back. Consequently, it was very important to see that the student went up high enough so that he had plenty of room to come out of any positions into which he might get before falling too close to the ground.


Spin_Maneuver-1.jpg

Once proficiency at spirals, and in entering and recovering from a spin was demonstrated by the student pilot, additional instruction in aerobatics continued at Issoudun, with increasingly tighter turns at greater degrees of bank being taught. Next for the budding American pilots to learn was the Immelmann Turn, or what was encompassed in the French repertoire known as Virages. Called a "Vertical Virage" because the required bank exceeded 45 degrees, Bingham describes the maneuver's execution technique:

After satisfying the instructor of his ability to do tight spirals, the pilot was next taught to do vertical banks or virages, beginning at an elevation of about five thousand feet. The movements of the controls in this manoeuvre are the same as those in tight spirals, except that the plane is banked over to 90° and the speed is increased to a point where dizziness is brought on very rapidly.

Immelmann_Turn-1.jpg

If the French monitors were satisfied with the progress of their American charges, the student pilots advanced to Fields 5 & 6 at Issoudun, to learn the final two aerobatic maneuvers of their training program, and to fly these in the single-seat Nieuports of 15 Meter wing area, such as the N.21.

Bingham continues with his description of the Split-S:

After this the pilot learned the renversement, the quickest method of doing an aerial "about-face." This manoeuvre is performed by first pulling smartly on the stick and then turning the plane over on its back with a sharp, quick kick on the right rudder, at the same time throttling the motor. Just as the plane comes over on its back, the rudder is kicked sharply back into a neutral position and the stick pulled back into the seat, which causes the plane to come out into a normal glide.

In letters written to home, 1st Lieutenant William Muir Russel described his mastering of the Renversement during his training days at the Center:

The third, which is really beautiful and looks really difficult, but is not, is what the French call a "renversement." This is also very valuable in fighting, as it is the quickest way to turn when being pursued by an enemy. While flying along level you suddenly pull up the nose, let her slip to one side over on her back, then nose her down to the ground and come out going in the opposite direction. All these movements in five seconds. Many beginning to learn this stunt get into the vrille, or tail spin, the first couple of times they try it! It is pretty to watch, and remarkable because no altitude is lost in the maneuver.

Split-S_Maneuver-1.jpg

Greatest excitement for Russel, as well as for most other pilots, was reserved for mastering the vertical Side-Slip maneuver, and perhaps understandably so:

In my letter of some time ago, I described the acrobatics which are compulsory for each chasse pilot to take. Our machines have been strengthened to stand the extra strain. All of the sensations are pleasant except the side-slip, where you fall off to one side perpendicularly. This is the worst I have yet encountered, and you may be sure that one does it only when he is ordered to. You are actually torn away from your seat, and your life belt is all that holds you in the machine. At the same time, your stomach rests in your mouth. You can probably understand why the rain is such a friend in need after you have worked for a week endeavoring to perfect such stunts. After satisfying certain French monitors that these maneuvers have been mastered, we were assigned to another field to perfect our squadron flying. This is most interesting work, but a little tedious, as you have to do almost too much flying. 

Commander Bingham described in his book this final requisite maneuver that aspiring pursuit pilots were to display a capability of performing:

The course of instruction at Field 5 was completed by learning what are known as "wing slips." When once in a wing slip, the plane falls very rapidly sideways and is controlled by a slight pressure on the stick and rudder. To get it into the wing slip, our pilots were taught to bank the plane over slowly, reducing the motor gradually and putting on reverse rudder so as to prevent the plane from diving, and at the same time pushing the stick slightly forward in order to overcome any tendency to spiral. To come out of the wing slip, it is necessary to push the rudder down so as to cause the plane to dive, and pull in the stick as though coming out of a spiral.

To follow all these instructions in detail in the single seater Nieuport when they knew that some of their friends had already been killed in attempting to execute these manoeuvres, involved an amount of courage that is not understood by the average soldier on the ground. At the same time it was absolutely necessary for the flyer who wished to become a good pursuit pilot to do exactly as he was told and carry out his instructions to the letter.


Side_Slip-1.jpg

With the schooling on "stunting" over, successful pilots were advanced to take formation, gunnery, navigation, and training in tactics with eventual assignment to a pursuit squadron planned. 

Here's a list of sources that I used to prepare it. There may be one amendment to the chart on the Renversement maneuver though, and this in comparison to the illustration of it shown at the beginning of this thread, and the manner I drew it in my image here, as it may be performed more like a wingover (see Bingham's drawing I used shown below).

A Happy Warrior: Letters Of William Muir Russel, An American Aviator In The Great War, 1917-1918, by Henry Russel

An Explorer in the Air Service, by Henry Bingham

First To The Front, THe Adventures of 1st Lt. Waldo Heinrichs and the 95th Aero Squadron, 1917-1918, by Charles Woolley

Over The Front Journal, Volume 12, Number 3, Fall 1997

Practical Flying, by Flight-Commander W.G. McMinnies, R.N.

Renversement_Bingham.jpg

 

----------------------

 

Special Thanks to

http://simhq.com/forum/ubbthreads.php/topics/2515610/Re_WWI_Basic_Combat_Maneuver_d.html

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SKIP BOMBING

 

IL-2 Series: Skip Bombing

by Frank "Dart" Giger

 

So far the SimHQ series for the IL-2 family of simulations has covered Fighters, and Ground Attack. Today we’re going to learn to attack ships using skip bombing.

As you’ve probably learned, level bombing in a fighter can be challenging; it’s easy to miss. Dive bombing with fighters, let alone Stukas, Dauntlesses (Dauntlessi?), and Kates can be supremely difficult.

Mast Top!

 

Since ships travel on water, folks figured out that one could literally skip bombs over the waves and into their target. The Soviets in particular were big fans of the technique and used it extensively against German shipping. In the Pacific, the USA used skip bombing against Japanese ships.

 

It can be risky — one is flying right into the teeth of anti-aircraft fire, after all — but has a high probability of both a hit on a target and survival afterwards.

Viewed from above, a ship is very long and very narrow; one must hit something no bigger than the width of the vessel, which can be as little as ten yards. Make the side of the ship a target and one has the side of the barn, a very big barn, to aim at.

air_311a_001.jpg

Big ships, such as battleships and aircraft carriers, aren’t suitable for solo skip bombing; there is a “diving S” technique for slipping around their fire, but it’s not historical and takes advantage of the unique nature of anti-aircraft artificial intelligence. Likewise, it’s just for showing off – you aren’t going to sink a battleship with one bomb! Take five or six friends with you if you’re going to skip bomb big ships.

 

As homage to the IL-2 series origins, we’ll be flying with the Soviets in this article, and no plane says Soviet “Mast Top” missions like the P-40! Most of the lend-lease P-40’s went to the 2nd Guards Composite Air Squadron stationed near Murmansk, and it was the plane that Boris Safonov last piloted.

 

air_311a_002.jpg

 

 

The Great Time Delay Debate (Again)

Until the very last set of updates, one couldn’t set a time delay on bombs and sink ships. Apparently the bombs would bonk off of the sides and sink, leaving the ship unharmed. This has been fixed, but it leads to an interesting debate.

 

This wasn’t exactly historical in all cases; setting a second or two of delay would allow the bombs to penetrate through the sides of ships before exploding, making the damage more severe. Delays were set at different times on different fronts by different air forces.

I recommend not setting a delay of more than one second. Let’s not stretch things too far from reality, and a proper run will clear your plane even with zero delay. In fact, I recommend learning to skip bomb with no delay set.

 

Ship Defenses

Ships have a great firing fan: they can shoot pretty much along the waterline all the way up to nearly ninety degrees vertically. However, their guns are most deadly from around thirty to fifty degrees above the water. I like to think of it as the “zone of certain death,” as any aircraft that lingers there is pretty much guaranteed of getting hit.

As anyone that has practiced dive bombing knows it’s getting away that is the hard part; because of this, we’re going to come in very low drop out bomb, transect the “zone of certain death” as quickly as we can, and get the heck out of there.

air_311a_003.jpg

Attack Profile

The attack profile is pretty straight forward:

  • Always, always, always check for enemy aircraft before committing to any sort of ground or sea attack, as your course and speed are predictable and easily anticipated.
     
  • Start at an altitude between 800 and 1,500 feet and a speed of around 250 miles per hour from a minimum of 3,000 to 4,000 yards out. The big thing about your setup is to know when your plane outruns its ability to maneuver; we’ve got a big climb at the end of our attack and need all the elevator response we can get!
     
  • At around 2,000 yards, dive at a 35 degree angle until one is just fifty feet off the water, being careful to stay around 300 miles per hour. The rule of thumb is that if the ship is firing at you, dive to the deck! We’ll be hoping that at minimum quadrant for the guns and the smallest silhouette we can show the gunner he’ll miss. I found that minor banking (about five degrees left and right) using ailerons only and jinking up and down by about ten feet is highly advantageous.
     
  • When the (medium sized) ship presents around 140 mils on the sight (the ends halfway between the outer circle and the edge of the square reflector plate) , pull straight up and release your bomb. For small ships, when it’s at about 120 mils (a third the way past the ring to the edge of the reflector plate).
     
  • Since there is a slight delay between hitting the release and the bomb falling away, our bomb will depart between 100 and 150 feet off of the water in a very shallow ballistic path. It’ll do one hop over the water and strike the ship at the water line.
     
  • Egress is a critical part of the skip bomb — if one is too close to the explosion things fall off of one’s aircraft. Likewise, if the bomb doesn’t destroy the ship, we want to be on a flight profile that is least advantageous to his and other ship’s gunners.
     
  • Think reverse dive bomb — after the release of the bomb, go vertical with a slight turn left or right and when about 1,500 feet altitude (well before stall), dive at around 35 degrees to about 750 feet and turn in the opposite direction. The reason for the S is two fold: to avoid anti-aircraft fire from other ships and to make it more difficult for enemy fighters that may be swooping down or trying to follow. Make your climb aggressive but smooth — a snap roll 300 feet above a ship that has a thousand pounds of explosive about to hit it is no place to be!

air_311a_004.jpg

Below is the skip bomb attack from a different set of angles:

air_311a_005.jpg

1 - 50 foot altitude, 300 mph, 140 mils in sight.
2 - Pull into vertical, releasing bomb.
3 - Bomb spashes then skips.
4 - boom!
5 - Wing over and away from ship, diving at around 35-40 degree angle.
6 - Level out, reverse turn and climb slighty, then reverse turn from the ship.

Watch out for bad guys!

 

 

The goal is to get out of the range of any guns as quickly as one can while presenting as hard a target to hit as is humanly possible.

A word on the rudder: don’t use it! You want to fly straight at the ship with no slip to increase your sight picture, and you want the bomb to skip straight without being askew to its path. Similarly, one wants to have his climb clean without any more roll than the ailerons provide with the gentle turn to prevent bleeding airspeed.

 

Moving Ships

Simply adjust your aim point to the bow of the ship if it is moving slowly or a quarter of its length in front of the bow if it is a fast ship. You’re releasing a bomb traveling at 300 miles per hour from a distance of about a thousand yards; it won’t out run it.

 

Common Mistakes

Releasing too low or too soon: Best release is at 125-150 feet off of the water. This allows for a big skip that can travel the distance. A lower release means the skip will be shorter and the bomb will run out of energy before it reaches the target. If you release too early, it’ll peter out before it gets there.

Releasing too high or too late: Too much altitude and the skip will either be too large (and the bomb will sail right over the decks) or simply make a big plunk and sink to the bottom. Release too late and the bomb will either skip over the ship or, worse, strike it and explode right underneath you!

Remember, the bomb is traveling at the same speed as your aircraft. You do not want to fly formation with a thousand pounds of explosives!

 

Other Aircraft

While I’ve used the P-40 as my example, the same principles apply for all skip bombing; the only difference is the release point based on speed. If one is going faster than 300 MPH, release earlier; if slower, release later. Practice makes perfect.

 

Conclusion

Skip bombing is fun! It’s not terribly difficult to learn, looks cool, has high probabilities for both sinking ships and surviving the attack.

 

--------------------------

 

Special Thanks to

http://www.simhq.com/_air10/air_311c.html

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IL-2 Series: Fundamentals of Teamwork

 

Positioning

“Loosey Deucy”  The most common and effective pairing is the Wingman slightly lower and to the right or left of the Leader with about fifty to one hundred meters distance. If the pair is too close together, they represent a single target to an unseen attacker! The Wingman is lower in order to see the Leader and keep formation.

 

air_365a_001.jpg

 

Line Abreast : Side-by-side, with both splitting the sphere of scanning the skies for enemies.

 

air_365a_002.jpg

 

Line Astern : Ducks in a row. Usually caused by the Leader outrunning the Wingman, it’s also the most common formation when attacking ground targets.

 

air_365a_003.jpg

 

Overwatch : The Wingman is high and to the side of the Leader, with two to three hundred meters separation. The Wingman must be far enough left or right to easily see and keep with the Leader. It’s a good technique if the Leader has just finished a successful attack and is attempting to regain energy.

 

air_365a_004.jpg

 

 

Leader-Wingman Tactics

Since we’ve got more virtual experience in flying than most real WWII pilots had in actual aircraft, the dedicated roles of Leader and Wingman aren’t relevant. We don’t live together, train together (unless one is part of a dedicated squadron), and work out tactics on the ground. We don’t know each other, let alone trust each other, enough to take a strictly subordinate roll in the virtual skies.

We are going to make a few assumptions, however, about our fellow virtual pilot...

  1. He’s competent. Our comrade in the skies can tell the difference between friend and foe, can perform all basic and a few advanced maneuvers, and can hit the enemy with his guns ten percent of the time.
     
  2. He’s not a complete jerk. Our teammate isn’t a mindless score hound looking to make a kill at any price, including intentionally blocking us to shoot down an enemy we’ve already crippled.
     
  3. He’s not a maniac. We’ve all been maniacs online, flying heedlessly into situations that are disadvantageous, diving in on an easy kill on a crippled plane below us while healthy enemies are at the same or higher altitude, and seeking engagement when our planes are low on fuel, ammunition, and damaged. If you’re flying alone and not as part of a team, flying as a maniac is almost a given — you’ve already adopted a suicidal tactical posture.

Welded Wing

In the standard pair or “Welded Wing,” the Wingman remains close (within 200 meters) on echelon with the Leader, ready to follow up on an attack as the situation presents itself. It’s two planes performing the same basic maneuvers against a common enemy.

 

The difference from historical doctrine is that as energy state and positioning change, so does the role of each pilot.

It’s a fine distinction, but the idea isn’t two pilots competing for the same kill (which is the online norm), but one where each pilot is evaluating which of the two has the best opportunity to strike at any given moment. It’s all about sharing the kill rather than claiming it.

Advantages:  In the standard pair, there is a fifty percent greater chance of friendly aircraft hitting an enemy aircraft. It also allows one aircraft to disengage and re-engage a target that has little chance of escaping.

 

Disadvantages:  Both members of the team tend to become fixated on the target, opening up both aircraft to unseen attack from behind, above, or below. Similarly, collisions and friendly fire are possible when both planes are vying for like positions against an enemy.

The rule of thumb for avoiding trouble is that the lower plane yields and defers to the higher plane. if you can’t see your teammate, don’t dive! And if you think you might hit your teammate if you fire, don’t shoot. You will hit him!

 

Thach Weave

In the Thach Weave, Leader and Wingman scissor across each other horizontally, each either following the enemy into a turn and shooting before cutting out, or deflection shooting “at the cross” into the enemy aircraft. It’s the forerunner to the “Drag and Bag,” in that having the enemy on the tail of one of the aircraft is actually an opportunity to shoot him down.

While designed originally as a defensive maneuver against aircraft with a much smaller turning radius (Zero against everything the USA had), it works offensively as well!

Advantages:  The Thach Weave keeps the enemy off balance if he’s in defense, as he must track two aircraft going in different directions. If the enemy gains the tail of one of the pair, the wingman is in position to attack. Constant maneuvering makes spoiling attacks from other enemy planes much harder. It is the best defensive tactic as well, as the enemy can’t attack both aircraft at the same time.

 

Disadvantages:  Like all great maneuvers, the Thach Weave is easy to learn and hard to master. One has to discipline one’s self to keep scissoring and not simply lock onto the enemy’s six and follow him. Similarly, it only works if both of you know what a Thach Weave is and it’s decided that it will be used by communications.

The Thach Weave can also be performed offline in the IL-2 series with the AI. If you have the IL-2 series including Pacific Fighters, this1.8MB .ntrk file shows the Thach Weave used both offensively and defensively (Veteran friendly AI versus two Ace AI). The 39MB zipped .wmv “how to” video of the Thach Weave is here.

 

Thach Weave - Offense

 

air_365a_005.jpg

 

Thach Weave - Defense

 

air_365a_006.jpg

 

 

Double Attack

 

When combat speed is high, the Double Attack is one of the best ways to maintain the high energy levels of the aircraft while engaging a sole enemy. The idea is that each of the pair takes turns in actively striking the target in what essentially becomes one long single attack.

Each pilot is either engaging the enemy with the intent to make a quick strike and then extending away from the target to set up for another attack, each in turn. The target is never attacked at the same time by both fighters.

 

What makes it different from a Thatch Weave is the distance of separation between the members of the pair; while the Thatch Weave has the fighters in fairly tight horizontal scissors and never apart more than a couple hundred meters, in the Double Attack technique has them as much as 800 meters from each other working in the vertical.

 

2nd Guards pilot Mohawk and I “discovered” this technique one night against a poor P-38; it is unfortunate that I wasn’t recording TeamSpeak at the time. In the instructional movie I made about the event, I refer to it as a “High Low Pair” technique, where one pilot is either “in” and attacking or “out” and setting up for another attack. Download the 31MB zipped .wmv on using teamwork as a high low pair here.

 

The technical terms are "Double Attack" rather than “The High Low Pair,” and “Engaged Fighter" and "Free Fighter" rather than “In” and “Out” aircraft. The neat thing about re-inventing the wheel is one can refer to it as “A Round” until otherwise informed as to the real name.

Advantages:  Retains high energy levels for both aircraft, allowing them to dictate the combat and remain prepared to engage other aircraft or egress away from combat. Since the enemy is forced to defend and maneuver against two aircraft his energy level is decreased more than the attackers, reducing his chances for escape or attack the longer he is engaged.

Disadvantages:  Requires a large amount of communication and coordination. Mohawk and I executed this technique on the fly because we have flown together so often as to instinctively know what the other would do in any given situation.

 

Drag and Bag

 

The Wing Walker, II/JG1, and RAF74 squadrons (as well as some others) are absolute masters of this technique. Simply put, the Wingman climbs above and to the side of the Leader about six hundred to a thousand meters away. When the enemy attacks, the Leader evades in a broad turn or by jinking in a straight line to disrupt the aim of the enemy. The Wingman then dives down to bounce the enemy which has become fixated with his “easy” kill, and cuts him in half.

Advantages:  Works 98.7% of the time against me, and 70% of the time against everyone else. It’s easy to execute and has a high chance of success.

 

Disadvantages:  Requires communication, as the Wingman directs the Leader on which way to go to set up his shot. It also exposes the Leader to fire from the enemy. If the Wingman doesn’t attack decisively with accurate fire, the Leader can be shot down.

 

Getting Separated

 

It’s going to happen. If the pair is separated, the first priority is to resolve immediate combat by either shooting down a current target or maneuvering towards the location of one’s partner. It can be very difficult to identify one’s teammate without icons, so maneuver cues such as a barrel roll, landmark use ("I’m almost to the fork in the river!"), or even tracers (In my case, I usually mark my position with whatever color the enemy is using).

If in combat, the pilot with the best tactical position is the Leader and gives instructions to the Wingman, hoping to set up a Drag and Bag or a Thatch Weave.

If out of combat, the first to the location of rendezvous is the Leader, unless otherwise agreed to be done differently.

 

Summary

 

This small article is hardly inclusive of all Leader-Wingman techniques. It is an introduction to techniques that are easy-to-learn and use with teammates that are part of a scratch team.

 

The fundamental rules are simple:

  1. Fight to live.
  2. Don’t be a jerk or a maniac.
  3. Work as part of a team.
--------------------------
 
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KNOW YOUR AIRFRAME

 

This is such a great tool to compare listed aircrafts in Aces High, we have some of em here, this tool will give you the basic idea about the stats

and how to fight within them - fighting against them.

 

Link: ACES HIGH FIGHTER COMPARISON CHART

 

You just need to select max 4 planes from the left corner and process the details.

 

Let's compare the Spit Mk I and BF-109 E-4 for example,

 

2-1_zps54cb16b5.png

1-2_zpsbbe3f4cf.png

3-1_zpsc0011633.png

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Cockpit Gauges

 

The sample cockpit below is the Aces High P-39. Cockpit layouts and gauges will vary with aircraft and country of origin. Note that gauges and indicators do not necessarily follow strict historical accuracy in appearance,function or units of measure.

Us_gauges.jpg

1 - Altimeter Altitude above Mean Sea Level (MSL) in feet (all aircraft)

Large pointer x 100 feet, small or red pointer x 1,000 feet, red indicator or other window/flag x 10,000 feet

2 - Slip Indicator A slip or skid is indicated by the ball - apply rudder to center

"Step on ball," e.g. if ball is to the right, apply right rudder

3 - Remote Indicating Compass Indicates heading with compensation for compass variances

4 - Compass

5 - Artificial Horizon

6 - Airspeed Indicator in mph (all aircraft)

Pointer is Indicated Airpspeed (IAS), red marker is True Airpeed (TAS)

7 - Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) x 1,000 feet per minute

8 - Turn and Bank Indicator

9 - Manifold Pressure Gauge Controlled by throttle

US: direct indication in inches of mercury (in. Hg) Standard Atmosphere = 29.92 in. Hg

UK: "boost" in psi above Standard Atmosphere (14.7 psi)

German: relative multiplier. One standard atmoshere = 1.0 ata (atmospheres absolute)

Japanese: direct indication in mm Hg x 10 differential from Standard Atmosphere (760 mm Hg)

10 - RPM Gauge Propeller RPM

11 - Landing Gear Indicator

Green: down

Gray: retracted

Yellow: in transit

Some include a flap position indicator

12 - Clock

13 - Oil Pressure Gauge

14 - Carburetor Air Temperature Gauge

15 - Combat Trim Indicator

Green lamp: on

Gray lamp: off

16 - Surface Trim Indicators

Rudder

Elevator

Aileron trim

17 - Auto-pilot Indicator

Yellow lamp: auto level

Green lamp: auto angle

Red lamp: auto speed

Lamp off: no autopilot engaged

18 - Beacon

19 - Ordnance Display Ordnance and ammunition count

20 - Fuel Quantity and Tank Selection Gauge Shows quantity in currently selected tank

Automatically selects tanks for CG balance in auto mode (indicated by white tank label)

Cycle tanks for manual management (yellow tank label)

21 - Accelerometer Force of gravity (G's) on aircraft

22 - Flaps Position Indicator

 

 

Typical British cockpit gauges:

Uk_gauges.jpg

 

Typical German cockpit gauges:

De_gauges.jpg

 

Typical Japanese cockpit gauges:

Jp_gauges.jpg

 

------------------

 

Special Thanks to

http://www.hitechcreations.com/wiki/index.php/Cockpit_Gauges

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Combat Landing (Part I)

 

A combat landing is a compressed version of an "overhead" or "break turn" approach. Military landings do not use the rectangular patterns used in civilian aviation with discrete downwind, base and final legs.

 

The entry to a standard military overhead pattern is usually flown upwind at 1,000' above ground level (AGL) directly overhead (or slightly offset to the right) the runway. At the upwind numbers, the pilot performs the "break," banking left into a high angle of bank (60° to 90°), throttle to idle, pulling up to 6 g's in the crosswind turn to bleed off airspeed until rolling out on the reciprocal heading from the runway.

 

Once established out of the break, you are in the "downwind" and should be approximately 1nm abeam of the runway. Descend to 600' AGL and extend gear and flaps. At the "abeam" position, directly abeam the landing area of the runway, count 15 seconds then begin a continuous descending 180° turn back to the runway at 30° or less of bank, maintaining 140 MPH throughout the turn. Roll out approximately 1,000' from the runway and less than 200' AGL. Work throttle and elevators to be 95-110 MPH over the runway threshold, then reduce throttle and gradually pull back on stick to flair to a smooth 3 point touchdown at about 80 MPH.

 

Hold the stick back to lock the tailwheel and steer with rudder while applying brakes. Controlling your rate of descent is important for all landings. Remember that power controls altitude and elevators control airspeed. To increase rate of descent, decrease power. To decrease your rate of descent, increase power.

 

After you've made a few successful landings, you can practice a combat landing. A long, slow, straight-in approach into an airfield leaves you vulnerable to enemy aircraft and ground vehicles. A combat landing will get you on the ground and in the tower in well under a minute so you can celebrate your victories with a trip to the refrigerator.

 

Approach the field at full speed and full power, descending to 1,200' AGL approximately 5 miles from the field. You'll have plenty of energy available to fight your way into the field, if necessary. The tight pattern will also keep you inside the protective ack of the field. Maintain full throttle and align with the runway, descending to anywhere from 50' to 500' AGL.

 

Landing01.jpg

 

Landing02.jpg

Entry 
Full power directly over runway
Less than 500' AGL
Note runway heading

Landing03.jpg

The Break
Begin just after end of runway
Throttle to idle
Start bank to the left

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Combat Landing (Part II)

 

 

 

Landing04.jpg

The Break
Roll to 60°-90° of bank
Begin pull into high-G turn

Landing05.jpg

In the Break
Gradually increase back pressure 
almost to blackout to bleed airspeed

Landing06.jpg

Approaching Abeam
Flaps as airspeed allows
Nose down to counter lift from flaps*
500' AGL
Begin descending 180° turn back to runway

Landing07.jpg

At the 90
Bank approximately 30°
Coordinated turn (ball centered)
Constant rate of descent
Keep landing spot in view

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Combat Landing (Part III)

 

 

 

Landing08.jpg

At the 45
200' altitude, 140 MPH
Gear down and check
Another notch of flaps

Landing09.jpg

At the 45
Work throttle and turn for alignment
Resist tendancy to flatten out turn too much,
causing an overshoot on alignment

Landing10.jpg

Approaching the Start
Less than 100' AGL altitude
105-120 MPH airspeed

Landing11.jpg

Wings Level
100' from runway
25' AGL

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Combat Landing (Part IV)

 

 

Landing12.jpg

Touchdown
Reduce throttle to idle
Gradual back pressure on stick to flair
Land in 3 point attitude at approximatly 80.

Landing13.jpg

Rollout
Hold stick back to lock tailwheel
Steer with rudder & apply brakes

 

 

Notes:

When using Combat Trim, the aircraft will pitch up when lowering flaps. You can either push the nose down or add down elevator trim until slight back pressure is necessary to hold the aircraft level. Combat Trim disengages when any trim is used.

 

Full flaps are recommended for all landings. A slower landing speed means a shorter roll out and a quicker trip to the safety of the tower. Remember that the goal of a combat landing is to get on the ground quickly, not to be a juicy target floating gracefully above the runway for 10 seconds.

 

Most taildraggers are landed in a 3 point attitude as the slower touchdown speed is always a plus.

 

After you've rolled out from the break and begun the 180° turn for landing, your scan outside the cockpit to your landing point increases from mostly outside after the 90 to almost completely outside the cockpit after the 45. Your throttle and control inputs become instinctive from the sight picture. Check the section on the Look Forward View to set a view looking down the cowling like you see in these cockpit screenshots.

 

---------------------------------

 

Special Thanks to:

http://www.hitechcreations.com/wiki/index.php/Combat_Landing

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Carrier Landings (PART I)
by Rolex 

 

A carrier landing is similar to an "overhead" approach on land, but called a "break turn" approach. The carrier will travel over one mile during the pattern, so the pattern will resemble a complete loop instead of an oval racetrack. The exact approach depends on the plane, but this will present a generic landing pattern. After you've made a few successful landings, you can modify it by starting at a lower altitude and using a tighter turn.

 

When you're heading to the carrier, do it at the speed of heat. In combat conditions, enter the break (or the overhead at an airfield) at full speed just in case there's a bandit in the area. You'll have the energy to shoot him down before you land. In peace time you do it to look cool. Also, it gets you on deck quicker than a long, drawn out, straight-in approach. The key is to use the break turn to bleed off all that extra speed.

 

Controlling your rate of descent will be important. Remember that power controls altitude and elevators control airspeed. To increase rate of descent, decrease power. To decrease your rate of descent, increase power.

 

Terminology

CV - aircraft carrier
Loop - carrier landing pattern.
Break turn - the starting point for a high-G turn
Abeam - point on downwind leg that is directly abeam of the stern of the boat
Start - the beginning of the "final"
180 - begining of 180° turn back to the boat and the start
90 - 90° from the start
45 - 45° from the start
Groove - final approach
Trap - successful landing on CV
Bolter -  Unsuccessful trap (Go Around)

 

loop.jpg

entry.jpg
Entry
Parallel CV, but slightly offset to starboard side
800' altitude, full power >300 mph
Tailhook down
Note the CV course and reciprocal heading

   

break.jpg
The Break
Count 8-10 seconds
Throttle to idle
Roll to approx. 60° of bank
Pull into high-G turn

 

gearhook.jpg
In the Break
Continue high-G turn to reduce airspeed
Extend gear at gear extension speed
(<400 mph F4U, <150 mph for other aircraft)

Flaps as necessary*

 

rollout.jpg

Roll Out on Reciprocal Heading
Looking for 600' altitude, 130 mph
Add power as necessary
3 green, no red, gear down, hook down
Flaps as necessary
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Carrier Landings (PART II)
by Rolex

 

abeam.jpg

Approaching Abeam
3/4 - 1 mile from CV


180.jpg

At the 180
Begin abeam of ramp
Bank just under 30°
Coordinated turn (ball centered)

Constant 500 fpm rate of descent

 

90.jpg
At the 90
400' altitude
Continue 500 fpm rate of descent
Gear down, hook down, flaps as necessary

Keep the CV in view

 

45.jpg
At the 45
300' altitude
Work throttle and turn for alignment
Resist tendancy to flatten out turn too much, causing an overshoot on alignment

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Carrier Landings (PART III)
by Rolex

 

start.jpg
Approaching the Start
200' altitude
Aligned with 400 - 600 fpm descent
Only 17 - 25 seconds before trap
Adjust power to control rate of descent

 

groove.jpg
In the Groove
Keep wings level
Use rudder to crab for alignment
Keep CV at constant position using power
Flaps as necessary
 

roundover.jpg
Over the Ramp
Wings level, on center line300 - 500 fpm descent

 

cutview.jpg
The Cut
Cut throttle after passing over the ramp
Plant it on the deck


Notes:

*When using Combat Trim, the aircraft will pitch up when lowering flaps. You can either push the nose down or add down elevator trim until slight back pressure is necessary to hold the aircraft level. Combat Trim disengages when any trim is used.

Make sure you're less than 130 mph at the cut and your Angle of Attack (AOA) is high enough to not bounce on the main gear and miss the arresting wires. If you do bolter, smoothly add power. Don't raise the nose too fast or too much. Retract landing gear.

Caution: adding power too quickly in the F4U may cause a violent torque roll to the left. Bank right as you roll in power. 

Do not retract flaps because you will sink quickly from the lost lift. Establish a shallow, positive rate of climb and build speed before you begin slowly retracting flaps. Perform a climbing turn to the left and establish yourself on the downwind leg for another try. It's your turn in the barrel!

After you've begun the 180° turn for landing, your scan outside the cockpit to your landing point increases from mostly outside after the 90 to almost completely outside the cockpit after the 45. Your throttle and control inputs become instinctive from the sight picture.

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Advanced Carrier Landings (Part I)

by Rolex

 

After you've made a few successful landings using the basic technique to stay ahead of the aircraft, it's time to try a more aggressive, tighter carrier loop. The goal is to keep within the perimeter of the fleet and get the aircraft on the deck even faster. You'll go from full speed and power over the CV to landing on the deck in less than 45 seconds.

This is closer to the actual technique developed to qualify the Corsair for carrier landings. The long nose of the Corsair, combined with the difficult low speed, full flaps handling and low pilot seat in the early models made long, straight-in approaches difficult. This technique is a continuous, descending turn around a moving point, allowing the pilot to keep the CV and Landing Signal Officer (LSO) in view. You will not be "dragging" into the CV at low speed and high power, requiring a high Angle of Attack (AOA) and reducing your visiblity over the nose.

 

45_loop.jpg

45entry.jpg
Entry
Approach CV at 45° from rear, port quarter
Descend to under 500' altitude, full power
Tailhook down

   

45break.jpg
The Break
Over CV, throttle to idle
Roll to just under 90° angle of bank
Begin pull into high-G turn
 

45gear.jpg
In the Break
Continue high-G turn to bleed airspeed
Extend gear at gear extension speed 3 green, no red, gear down, hook down

 

45abeam.jpg

Abeam
500' altitude at fleet perimeter
Continue 180° descending turn
One notch of flaps as necessary
Nose down to counter pitch up from flaps*
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Advanced Carrier Landings (Part II)

by Rolex

 
45_90.jpg
At the 90
Gradually reduce bank angle, continue descent
Spot CV in front-left cockpit view
Adjust to fly over support ship
 
45_45.jpg

At the 45
Approx. 250' altitude
Bank under 30° Work throttle and turn for alignment

 

45pit.jpg

At the 45
140 MPH, 500 fpm rate of descent
Another notch of flaps Keep the CV in view

 

45rollout.jpg

The Start
Rollout wings level at:
100' altitude, 100 MPH, 100' from ramp 500 fpm rate of descent

 

45rollout_ext.jpg
The Groove
On center line
Rudder for alignment if needed

 

45trap.jpg
The Trap
Cut throttle after passing over the ramp
Gradually increase back pressure on stick
 
----------------------
 
Special Thanks to Rolex - Source is here:
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