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National insignia: Dutch, Scandinavian, Bulgarian & Yugoslavian


The emblem is "X"  , and i think that the camoflage is important too. Please make those changes , because many bulgarian pilots lost their lives in WWII in the BF`s and other.a271e5e9c6870f27f33ec8d8ef142d08.jpg

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November 27, 1919 the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine was signed. In accordance with the treaty the Kingdom of Bulgaria was banned from operating military aircraft under any form for the next 20 years. For that reason all Bulgarian airplanes, balloons, aviation equipment, weaponry and ammunition were to be destroyed under Allied control. Under the terms of the treaty any aircraft, procured for civilian purposes, were to be bought from the countries on the winning side. The combined engine power for any airplane (including multiengined ones) was not to exceed 180 hp. In addition, the Bulgarian airspace was to be controlled by the allies and used according to the victorious countries' interests. In accordance with the treaty during 1920 no less than 70 airplanes, 110 aviation engines, 3 air balloons, 76 aviation machine guns, a number of photographic cameras and as well as other aviation equipment were destroyed at the military airfield of Bozhurishte. The seaplanes of the Bulgarian Navy were delivered by train to the same airfield and scrapped soon after that. On 5 July 1923 Bulgaria ratified the International Civil Aviation Treaty. From that moment on its air vehicles would carry a registration in the form B-Bxxx (the latter three signs being a combination of capital letters). In 1923 the first group of cadets, called "student-flyers" entered the Flying school at Vrazhdebna AF.The following year (1924) the first new airplanes were acquired. Those were machines of the Potez VIII, Caudron C.59, Henriot XD.14, Bristol 29 Tourer types; Avro 522 seaplanes (shown above) were also procured. Also in 1924 the Aeroplane Section was expanded to an Aeroflight Directorate still under the Ministry of Railways, Postal Service and Telegraph.

1925 saw the Potez XVII, Bristol Lucifer and the Macchi 2000/18 flying boats boosting the country's aircraft inventory. The Bulgarian government invited a group of German aircraft engineers, headed by the constructor Herr Hermann Winter to help establish an aviation factory.Named The State's Aeroconstruction Atelliér (more popular as DAR-Bozhurishte) the factory was initially managed by the first Bulgarian pilot to achieve an aerial victory - Mr. Marko Parvanov. The first aircraft types, produced by the plant were the "Uzounov-1" (an indigenous variant of the wartime German DFW C.V) and the DAR-2 (indigenous variant of the German Albatross C.III of the same era). Both types well-known and loved by the personnel of the former Air Troops and with Bulgarian combat service experience. A new type - the DAR-1, was also in a phase of development.

In 1928 the Ministry of War started the ambitious 10-year program for development of the military aviation (still banned by the peace treaty). Bulgaria started acquiring German, Czechoslovak and Polish airplanes.In 1934 the Aviation Regiment was renamed His Majesty's Air Troops, comprising a headquarters, with two army air groups (based at Bozhurishte and Plovdiv airfields), a training group (in Plovdiv), a maritime aquadron (at NAS Chaika, Varna) and additional operational support units. The first combat aircraft entered service in the reestablished air force in 1937 were 12 Arado Ar.65 fighters, 12 Heinkel He.51 fighters, 12 Dornier Do.11 bombers and 12 Heinkel He.45B recon planes. These machines are known as the Royal Gift, donated to the HMAT personally by Tsar (King) Boris III. In 1938 14 newly built Polish PZL.24B fighters (shown above) were acquired along with 12 PZL.43B light bombers. When the Third Reich occupied Czechoslovakia, absorbing her Czech Lands as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, her air force ceased to exist. Bulgaria used the opportunity to acquire large numbers of relatively modern aircraft at a symbolic price. 78 Avia B.534 biplane fighters, 32 Avia B.71 bombers (a license version of the Soviet SB light bomber, shown above) and 60 Letov Š.328 recon were part of the reinforcements. In less than 3 years the Air Force inventory had grown up to 478 pieces of which 135 of Bulgarian construction.


The Kingdom of Bulgaria entered World War II on the 1 March 1941 as a German ally. Under the signed treaty Bulgaria allowed the use of its territory as a staging point for the invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece and some minor logistical support. Despite the impressive inventory, Bulgaria's fighter force at the time consisted of 91 machines, with just 10 of them being of the modern Bf 109E-4 type. Further 11 were of the outdated PZL.24B; the remaining numbers were of the Avia B.534 biplane types. At the end of 1941 the inventory of His Majesty's Air Troops consisted of 609 aircraft of 40 different types.

At the beginning of World War II, the combat air fleet comprised 374 machines in various roles. In addition orders were placed for 10 Messerschmitt Bf 109E-4 fighters, 11 Dornier Do 17M/P bombers, 6 Messerschmitt Bf 108 light liaison and utility aircraft, 24 Arado Ar 96B-2 and 14 Bücker-Bestmann Bü 131 trainers. The Air Force order of battle comprised the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Army Aviation Orlyaks (Army Air Groups or air regiments), each attached to the correspondingly-numbered field army. Each orlyak had a fighter, a line bomber and two reconnaissance yatos (Squadrons). There was also an Independent Aviation corps, which combined the 5th Bomber and 6th Fighter Regiments. The training units consisted of the "Junker" School Orlyak at Vrazhdebna airfield, the 2nd Training Orlyak at Telish airfield (called the Blind Flying Training School) and the 3rd Training Orlyak at Stara Zagora airfield. In 1940, the Bulgarian aviation industry provided the HMAT with 42 DAR-9, 45 KB-5 aircraft and the serial production of the KB-6 - Bulgaria's first twin-engined aircraft was scheduled to commence. At year's end the Air Force had 595 aircraft (258 combat) and 10 287 personnel.

The Kingdom of Bulgaria entered World War II on the 1 March 1941 as a German ally. Under the signed treaty Bulgaria allowed the use of its territory as a staging point for the invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece and some minor logistical support. Despite the impressive inventory, Bulgaria's fighter force at the time consisted of 91 machines, with just 10 of them being of the modern Bf 109E-4 type. Further 11 were of the outdated PZL.24B; the remaining numbers were of the Avia B.534 biplane types. The ground-based air defenses were made up of only 8 88 mm (3.5 in) and 6 20 mm (0.79 in) AA guns. To help its new ally the 12th Army of the Wehrmacht offered support with its air and air defense assets and 8 Freya-type radars dispersed throughout the country. A dispersed observation and reporting system was gradually developed.

The first air strike against Bulgarian targets was carried out by 4 Yugoslav Dornier Do.17Kb-1 on the 6th of April 1941 on the city of Kyustendil and its railway station killing 47 and injuring 95, mostly civilians. The air strikes intensifying following days; British Royal Air Force units based in Greece participated in the attacks as well. At the end of April 2 and 5th Bulgarian armies occupied Greek and Yugoslav territories according to an agreement with the Third Reich. As a part of the joint armed forces' effort on June 26, 1941 6 Avia B.71 and 9 Dornier Do 17M bombers were transferred to the Badem Chiflik airfield near Kavala (in modern Greece). They were tasked with ASW patrols and air support for Italian shipping over the adjacent area of the Aegean Sea. In addition 9 Letov Š.328s based in Badem Chiflik provided the ground troops with air reconnaissance. At the Black Sea shores the "Galata" Fighter Orlyak was established at NAS Chaika, Varna, with the 10 Bf 109E-4s and 6 Avia B.534s. The S.328s were also used for ASW patrols over the Black Sea, flying out of the Sarafovo and Balchik airfields. At the end of 1941 the inventory of His Majesty's Air Troops consisted of 609 aircraft of 40 different types.

The all-metal PZL.23 Karaś ("Crucian Carp") light bombers were originally designed by Stanisław Prauss to replace older models employed by the Polish Air Force. The third prototype that flew in 1935, with a raised pilot's seat and lowered engines for better visibility, was accepted and entered production. The first variants, PZL.23A, were fitted with Bristol Pegasus IIM2 radial engines, but these engines soon proved to be unreliable. The production quickly shifted to using Pegasus VIII engines. 40 PZL.23A aircraft were built in 1936 and 210 PZL.23B aircraft were built between late 1936 and Feb 1938. An additional number was produced for export to Bulgaria with Gnome-Rhone 14N-01 engines because the Bristol engines were licensed for use in Poland only; that variant was dubbed PZL.43. Out of the 250 available to the Polish air force by the end of Aug 1939, 23 were lost in accidents and 110 were held in reserve or used by training squadron, making 117 available for combat squadrons when the European War began. The first combat mission for this design was on 2 Sep 1939 when a PZL.23B bomber of the 21st Squadron bombed a factory in Ohlau; it was also the first bombing attack on German territory. On 3 Sep, PZL.23 bombers attacked German columns, briefly disrupting German movement, but ultimately they were intercepted by German fighters and shot down easily due to low speed and lack of armor. At the end of the Polish campaign, 67 were destroyed in combat and about 60 were lost to other reasons. At least 21 PZL.23 bombers were withdrawn to Romania as the Polish retreated through that country; 19 of them were kept by the Romanian air force, and were used against Russia after the launch of Operation Barbarossa.

The Ar 196 was designed primarily to replace the He 60 biplane then currently in service on all of Germany's capital ships. One of the few seaplanes to see service in the Atlantic and Mediterrenian, the Ar 196's primary duties consisted of reconnaissance and shadowing of service vessels. While in most respects the Ar 196 is not a formidable aircraft, for a seaplane it's performance exceeded it's Allied counterparts. After Germany's capital ships ceased active participation in the war, most Ar 196's were relegated to sea patrols from shore bases. About 50 planes served with Balkan air forces in the Adriatic and Black Sea.

The DAR-10 was designed by Zvetan Lazarov in 1938 in the DAR (Darzhavna Aeroplanna Rabotilnica, meaning literally 'State Airplane Workshop') factory in Bozhurishte, near the capital Sofia. The Dar-10 was a single-engine two-seat (pilot and gunner) low-wing cantilever monoplane aircraft of conventional layout. Its two seats were in tandem under enclosed glazing. Its tailwheel undercarriage was fixed, and the main gears were spatted. the wings had wooden structure, covered with plywood. Flaps were not used. The fuselage was comparatively wide and deep, to accommodate the nose-mounted radial engine. It was constructed of steel-tube framework and wood formers, covered with fabric.

Two prototypes were built, powered by different engines: DAR-10A Bekas (Bulgarian: "snipe"), powered by an Alfa Romeo 128 R.C.21 9-cylinder radial engine rated at 950 hp (709 kW). This was the first DAR-10 to fly, on 2 July 1941. It was designed to carry four machine guns (2 fixed forward-firing and 2 in rear gunner position). It could carry five 100-kg bombs, mounted under the wings. There was also the possibility of a fixed 20 mm forward-firing cannon installation in the forward fuselage. This aircraft crashed in October 1942. In spite of good flight reviews, the type was not chosen for production. The high-wing KB-11 Fazan was selected for production instead.

Dar-10F (the "F" to indicate its Fiat engine), powered by a Fiat A 74 R.C.38 14-cylinder radial engine rated at 870 hp (649 kW). This aircraft first flew in March 1945. It was slightly heavier and longer than the DAR-10A. Its top speed was 454 km/h (282 mph). Thanks to a stronger construction and dive flaps, it could serve also as a dive bomber. It could be equipped with two fixed fuselage-mounted 20 mm cannons firing forward, two fixed wing-mounted machine guns, and two machine guns for the gunner. It could carry one 500 kg (1,100 lb) bomb or 1 x 250 kg (551 lb) and 4 x 100 kg (110 lb). The bombs would be mounted under the fuselage and wings. The DAR-10 was not selected for production. Some sources suggest that it was passed over in favor of the German Junkers Ju-87 Stuka dive bomber, while the improved DAR-10F was not selected as World War II had ended and Bulgaria had access to ample supplies of modern Soviet aircraft such as the Ilyushin Il-2 and Il-10.

The Heinkel He 51 was a German single-seat biplane which was produced in a number of different versions. It was initially developed as a fighter, and a seaplane variant and a ground-attack version were also developed. It was a development of the earlier He 49. At least 12 of these fighters were acquired by Bulgaria.

The Focke-Wulf Fw 58 Weihe (Kite) was a twin-engined aircraft that was used as a light transport, air-ambulance and navigational trainer by the Luftwaffe. The Fw 58 was designed to the same specification as the less successful Arado Ar 77. It was powered by two 240hp Argus As 10C eight-cylinder inverted V engines, carried in nacelles mounted below the low-mounted wings. The wings were semi-cantilevered, with most of their support structured carried within the wings, but with struts linking the top of the engine nacelles to the fuselage. The high-mounted tail was braced from below. The aircraft has a welded steel-tube fuselage, with a mix of fabric and metal covering. The wings had a metal frame with fabric covering behind the main spar. The main undercarriage wheels retracted into the nacelles.

The first prototype, the Fw 58 V1, made its maiden flight in the summer of 1935. It was a six-seat transport aircraft with a smooth streamlined nose. The second prototype, Fw 58 V2, was to have been the precursor to the military A-series. It had two open gun positions, one in the nose and one just behind the cabin, each carrying a single MG 15 7.9mm machine gun. The fourth prototype, Fw 58 V3, was the precursor to the first production series, the Fw 58B. The V3 had a glazed nose capable of carrying an MG 15 machine gun, and retained the open dorsal gun position. The Fw 58 B-1 was the first version to be produced for the Luftwaffe. It could carry the same guns as the V3, as well as a number of bombs on racks under the wings.

The most numerous version of the aircraft was the Fw 58C. This was a six-seat light transport aircraft with a faired-in nose, and no guns. It was based on the eleventh prototype and served in large numbers with the Luftwaffe and small numbers with Lufthansa. Around 1,350 Fw 58s were produced. Some were exported to Argentina, Bulgaria, China, Hungary, the Netherlands, Romania and Sweden and the type was produced under licence in Brazil. In German service the Fw 58 was used as a crew trainer, particularly in navigation, as a communications aircraft, an air-ambulance and as a light transport. It was also used to spray infected areas of the Eastern Front in an attempt to protect the German troops fighting below.

DAR Aircraft (DAR Aeroplanes) is a Bulgarian aircraft manufacturer, founded in 1912 in Sofia - Boujuriste. Their first aircraft was the DAR-1 designed by Hermann Winter in 1925. His other models are the DAR-2, DAR-3 and DAR-4, a trimotor aircraft. After leaving DAR, Hermann Winter worked at Fieseler, where he designed the aerodynamic properties of the Fieseler Fi 156 Storch. Prof. Cvetan Lazarov replaced Hermann Winter at DAR. DAR continued production with the DAR-5, DAR-6, DAR-7cc, DAR-8, DAR-9 and DAR-10A until 1944. In 1995, a new company continued the tradition with project series DAR-11/13 and the all metal DAR-21. The DAR-21 was started in 2000, winning a best product award for 2000 in the Republic of Bulgaria. Other models are the DAR-21S, DAR-23 and DAR Speedster. The DAR Aircraft manager is engineer Tony Ilieff. Chief designers are Prof. Atanas Hasamsky and Prof. Georgi Anestev.

Six DAR-3 series 1 aircraft were delivered from manufacturer in winter 1936. It has an open cockpit and Wright Cylone engine in a Townsend ring. Used for reconnaissance in late 1930s, then for liaison and continuation training. Withdrawn from service early 1940s. Six DAR-3 series 2 aircraft were delivered from manufacturerin 1937. It has an open cockpit, wheel spats, Siemens Jupiter VI engine. Later retrofitted with Alfa Romeo 126 RC 34 engine and hooded cockpit. Used for reconnaissance. Date withdrawn from service not known. Twelve DAR-3 series 3 aircraft delivered from manufacturer 1939. Alfa Romeo 126 RC 34 engine in longer cowling, cockpit canopy for pilot but not gunner, lengthened fuselage. Used for reconnaissance and army co-operation. Withdrawn from service in 1945.

The Dewoitine D.520 was a French fighter aircraft that entered service in early 1940, shortly after the opening of World War II. Unlike the Morane-Saulnier M.S.406, which was at that time the Armée de l'Air's most numerous fighter, the Dewoitine D.520 came close to being a match for the latest German types, such as the Messerschmitt Bf 109. It was slower than the Bf 109E but superior in manoeuvrability. Because of a delayed production cycle, only a small number were available for combat with the Luftwaffe.

The D.520 was designed in response to a 1936 requirement from the Armée de l'Air for a fast, modern fighter with a good climbing speed and an armament centred around a 20 mm cannon. At the time the most powerful V 12 liquid cooled engine available in France was the Hispano-Suiza 12Y, which was less powerful, but lighter, than contemporary engines such as the Rolls-Royce Merlin and Daimler-Benz DB 601. Other fighters were designed to meet the specifications but none of them entered service, or entered service in small numbers and too late to play a significant role during the Battle of France.

As German forces invaded Vichy's so-called "free zone" in November 1942, they captured 246 D.520s; additionally, a batch of 62 was completed under German occupation. Some were used by the Luftwaffe for training purposes. The Germans also transferred 120 D.520s to Bulgaria.

The Bulgarian government had evinced interest in the fighter and development of the aircraft continued, a further prototype, the B.135-l (D-IBPP) being completed, this differing from the B.35-3 only in having the curved wing leading edges supplanted by straight leading edges. The B.135 retained the HS l2Ydrs engine as plans to produce the HS t2Y-37 had been abandoned, and the Bulgarian government placed an order for 12 fighters of this type, simultaneously acquiring a manufacturing licence. The Bulgarian order for 12 B.135s was fulfilled in 1941 but the manufacturing licence was never taken up. The B.135 attained a maximum speed of 535 km/h and a cruising speed of 460 km/h Initial climb rate was 13,5 m/sec and range was 550 km Empty and loaded weights were 1 924 kg and 2 462 kg.


The Bulgarian Air Force received 11 Do 17 M-1s and P-1s in 1940. After their participation in the Balkans Campaign against Yugoslavia and Greece, the Bulgarians were given 15 captured Yugoslav Do 17Kb-1s. These including spare parts, engines, and landing gear. The Dorniers were assigned to the 1./5. bombardirovicen orlijak (1st Squadron of the 5th Bomber Regiment). In the Bulgarian occupation zones of Yugoslavia, the Do 17s carried out missions against Yugoslav Chetniks and partisans in 1941–44. They also supported Croatian forces in the same role. Another six Do 17Ms were received in 1943. In September 1944, the Bulgarians switched sides and declared war on their former ally, Germany. At this time they had twenty Do 17s of all types assigned to the 1./5. Bomber Group and five Do 17 Ps assigned to 3./1. Reconnaissance Squadron and another four Do 17 Ps assigned to 73. Long-range Reconnaissance Flight. In 71 days of operations against German forces, 32 aircraft (including some Do 17s) in Bulgarian service were lost. In 362 combat sorties, the pilots claimed 173 lorries and motor vehicles, 42 railroad cars, seven armoured vehicles and 10 aircraft destroyed or damaged, but actual German losses were nowhere near this total. The Bulgarians had underestimated the damage done which was "far beyond this [these] figures". With the exception of the Do 17s of 73. Long-range Reconnaissance Flight, the Do 17s didn't fly missions against the Axis after 2 December. As part of their war reparations to Yugoslavia, four Do 17s were delivered by Bulgaria after the war. Their subsequent fate remains unknown.


The Luftwaffe's first real warplane and used to form the the first staffel of the first Jagdgeschwader JG 132 (later renamed JG 2). The 65 was of metal, wood and fabric construction, typical of early 30's aircraft. Served as a fighter until replaced with more capable aircraft and finished it's service life as an advanced trainer until 1940. The Ar 65 was a rather mediocre aircraft but filled a void until the German aircraft industry rebuilt itself and newer types were available. Production of the fighter was discontinued in 1936. But the next year, 12 of them were presented to Germany's ally - the Royal Bulgarian Air Force. The final production total was 85 aircraft.


Bulgaria received 12 R-series machines in 1942, followed by 32 Ju-87D-5s in 1943. They were used in fighting partisans and may have seen some action against the Germans after the surrender of Bulgaria in September 1944. The Slovak satellite state received a few D-series machines, but it is unclear if they ever saw combat. The Croat satellite state received 15 Ju-87D-5s and some R-series machines, with a few of these aircraft possibly used against the Red Army in the summer of 1944, before most of the Croat forces deserted. A number of Stukas fell into Allied hands, particularly in North Africa, and were evaluated to assess the type's strengths and weaknesses. Combat losses of Stukas to the Soviets were high. For example, of the 21 Doras delivered to 4./StG 77, 15 aircraft and 6 crews were lost between 1 August – 22 October 1943, after which the group was withdrawn from frontline service. While active on the frontline the group flew more than 1,200 sorties, dropped 810,000 kg of bombs, and rear gunners claimed two La-5 and one P-39 shot down.


sign (1937 - 1941)









Arado ar-96b



Dornier Do 17M/P





Bf 109 19 E-3s and 145 G-2/6/10s  (Bulgarian camoflage + sign) all crashed by the comunists with tanks!!






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Dear Chaps (and Girls?),


I figured that it was time to create a suggestion again (after seeing the Czech roundel in the game). I would like to request the two roundels used by the Aviation Brigade (LVA) and Military Aviation - Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (ML-KNIL) to be added in honour of the Dutch aviators that participated in the following conflicts.


War over Netherland (LVA)


The Dutch Airforce scored 17 confirmed and 15 probable kills using Fokker D.XXI's1 against the Luftwaffe during the battle for the Netherlands. The number of kills with Fokker G.1's is harder to estimate but sources claim that they took down at least 18 aircraft2.

Several pilots had escaped to England once the Netherlands fell where they would form the 320, 321 and 322 Dutch Squadrons. The 322 squadron was tasked with V-1 Interception at which they proved extremely effective, producing also some ace in a day scores (Rudy Burgwal).


War over the Netherlands East Indies (ML-KNIL)


The Military Aviation brigade of the Netherlands East Indies Army flew mostly B-339's and CW-21's and while at a disadvantage due to the number of aircraft and size of area that they had to cover. The results were quite impressive (although getting a full account is extremely difficult) but reports include:


in a major engagement above Semplak on 19 February 1942, eight Dutch Brewster fighters intercepted a formation of about 35 Japanese bombers with an escort of about 20 Zeros. The Brewster pilots destroyed 11 Japanese aircraft and lost four Brewsters; two Dutch pilots died.3


War for Indonesian Independence (ML-KNIL):


This is obviously a bit 'shunned' subject but still we can not forget the efforts (of both sides obviously), the ML-KNIL flew a strange mix of aircraft during this campaign varying from high performance piston aircraft like P-51D/K and Sea Fury to early jets like the (license built) Meteor F4's.


The Roundels:


The old and present day roundel (this got replaced by the second roundel to avoid further mis-identification incidents as occured over the 'Waddenzee' where a german aircraft shot down a seaplane (while Netherland was stil neutral) because the roundel got mistaken for the French roundel):




The roundel that replaced the original roundel and was in use on most aircraft during the actual battle period of WW2:




The final decal that would be required to reflect post-war markings would simply be the flag, which was commonly applied on the tail (see picture of Meteor, P-51 and Sea Fury).






1 Kamphuis, 1966.

2 van der Klauw, 1966

3 Andriessen, 2008

Edited by Tarskin
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That should be true, I will try to find the 'correct' colour codes for the roundels if I get some spare time today (I am going to guess that the colours will be subtly different from the Czech one).


Here we go:


Red = RAL 3000

White = RAL 9016

Blue = RAL 5010

Orange = RAL 2004


The following website contains a lot more information like size and location on aircraft and also additional color code formats:



Edited by Tarskin
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  • 2 weeks later...

I figured I would add some pictures/drawings to illustrate how these were applied:



Roundel 1 on a (Fokker) Gloster Meteor F.8





Roundel 2 on a Fokker D.XXI



Edited by Tarskin
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This is a suggestion for adding Serbian Air Force and Royal Yugoslavian Air Force roundel. A lot of people from ex-Yugoslavian countries were wondering if we were ever going to get these nice roundels. So this is my suggestion.


As seen that Czech got their roundel when their website was launched, I was thinking that we could get these roundels on Serbian National Day which is on February 15th and February 16th ( Anniversary of the First Serbian Uprising in 1804 and the first Serbian Constitution in 1835). Many of players would be really happy and pleased if they see this in-game and it would mean so much to us.


Serbian and Yugoslavian Air Forces were one of the first air-forces in the world.


This is one very interesting fact:


Serbia formed one of first truly AA units in Europe.This is due the massive onslaught of German and Austro-Hungarian aircrafts.Serbian AA units and air warning units were formed officialy at 8th.June 1915


First airplane shot by ground unit in WW I was in Serbia. During German air attack on city of Kragujevac in 30th.September 1915, AA.Aritillerist Radoje Ljutovac-from regiment "Tanasko Rajic", shoot from first hit,by his AA modified gun,Ferman airplane with two crew members.

This is FIRST airplane in WW I,destroyed by earth-based AA fire.This day is also a holiday of Serbian Anti-Aircraft defense.




History about Air Forces:


Serbian Military Aviation was created when the aviation as vital part of the ground units was the question of the prestige under the military commands of the world. When we take Serbian position into the account , it was really hard to form the aviation knowing that Serbia was very small and poor at the beginning of 20th century. The real reason why Serbia hurried to form Aviation unit was the growing tension between the Kingdom of Serbia and Austro Hungary. Also, it was the question of preparing Balkan countries for the final driving out of the Turkey from Europe. Serbia was not only aware of all these problems but also forced to equip Serbian military with the aircraft and the balloons (of course with a great material renunciation). Serbia has purchased the first two balloons in 1909 from Augsburg; the same place where 40 years later Royal Yugoslav Air Force has purchased the Messerschmitt ME109 E3.The time of purchasing these Balloons was the time of growing crisis about anection of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the Austro Hungary, which could easily cause the war with this great military force. First six military pilots were trained in France. They finished the course in the beginning of the First Balkan war. On the 24th December 1912 the head of the military Ministry Radomir Putnik signed the papers about forming the Aviation Command situated in Nis which included : the Aircraft squad which counted 11 military aircraft, the Balloon squad, the Pigeon post and the Base. This date is the date of forming Military Aviation of Serbia and as well as the whole Yugoslavia. Its first combat experience, Serbian Aviation has experienced on the March 1913 over the Skadar which was in the Central Force hands. On the first combat flight sergeant-pilot Mihajlo Petrovic was killed as the second victim of World Military Aviation. The first victim of military aviation was a Bulgarian pilot Topradzijev who was killed in 1912 when he was flying back from the reconnaissance mission over Jedrene,Turkey.

Mihajlo Petrovic was the first trained Serbian airplane pilot. He completed his training and exams at the famous Farman pilot school in France and was awarded the international
FAI license no.979 in June 1912. His Serbian pilot's license carries the number 1.


The First Balkan War broke out in October 1912. Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria waged it against the Ottoman Empire in a final attempt to liberate the last of the territories that the Turks still occupied in Europe. The Serbian army advanced South through Kosovo and Metohija into Macedonia, then turned West toward the Adriatic coast, through central Albania. At the same time, the Montenegrin army advanced into Albania from the North and laid siege to the historic fortified city of Skadar.

In February 1913, the Serbian Army High Command formed a separate Coastal (Primorski) Army Corps in order to assist the Montenegrins on the Skadar front. Air support for this formation was assigned to the newly established "Coastal Airplane Squad", the first Serbian air combat unit, with 3 airplanes and 4 pilots under the command of major Kosta Miletic.

Serbia was one of few European countries that have air force as indipendent part of armed forces,at that time...




World War I started with Austro-Hungarian decleration of war on Serbia 28.VII.1914. S.A.F(Serbian Air Force) saw action from day one.At the beginning of the WWI Serbian pilots who were actually skilled and experienced from the Balkan wars, have succeeded to give the valuable information about the number, the movements and the position of the enemy troops.
They contributed to early Serbian victories in 1914 at Cer mountain,Kolubara and Drina river. At the beginning of the 1915, armed with machine guns and bombs, Serbian pilots succeeded to fight back the enemy by attacking their aircraft flying over the Serbian sovereign territory or by bombing the important targets in the background positions.

Serbia formed one of first truly AA units in Europe.This is due the massive onslaught of German and Austro-Hungarian aircrafts.Serbian AA units and air warning units were formed officialy at 8th.June 1915

First airplane shot by ground unit in WW I was in Serbia.
During German air attack on city of Kragujevac in 30th.September 1915,AA.Aritillerist Radoje Ljutovac-from regiment "Tanasko Rajic",shoot from first hit,by his AA modified gun, German airplane with two crew members.

This is FIRST airplane in WW I,destroyed by earth-based AA fire.This day is also a holiday of Serbian Anti-Aircraft defense.
One of many German airplanes destroyed by S.A.F,and Serbian AA units.

But the full control of the Serbian sky has been established in the April 1915 when one well equip and armed French squadron arrived as a help from the allied forces to Serbian Aviation. Until the beginning of "Mekenzen" offensive in October 1915, French and Serbian pilots have succeeded to establish dominance in the air and to follow the enemy movements over the Rivers Drina, Sava and Danube. They were also constantly bombing the hinder, the traffic and concentration of the enemy.

During the time of 1914-1915,first SERBIAN-made planes occur.They have been made mostly by craftsmens in various furniture factories.This early Serbian planes were used for training,since they were underpowered. While construction was Serbian,airplane motors were French-made. This aircraft design had the name 'PINGVIN',or 'Penguin class'..
Only few of these were ever made.Although modest,this domestic design was inspiration for creating Serbian air industry after WWI.

In the course of the Austro-Hungarian offensive and the retreating of the Serbian military , the French and Serbian pilots succeeded to contribute to the movements and intentions of the enemy. These information were very valuable to Serbian Military Command ,which was retreating under the constant and strong pressure of the enemy who also was helped by Bulgarian Army. The plan for retreating was that the solders together with the civilians go all over the Albania and Montenegro, all the way to the Adriatic Sea. In the course of the retreating, the French and Serbian pilots did the first operation of carrying the injured solders with an a/c. The French-Serbian pilots have also organized the maintenance of the connection with the units retreating through Albanian coast to Drac and Valona.

Evacuation of wounded Serbian soldiers by airplanes of S.A.F and French air force represent first Air-lift of injured soldiers in history.

Although Serbia was occupied in late 1915,by German,Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian army,Serbian goverment and armed force refused surrender.
Entire Serbian army withrawed through Albania,into Greece,where they together with French and British created Salonika front.

French pilots have left the Skadar area in the December 1915. When the last a/c was destroyed ,Serbian pilots together with the Serbian Army have crossed to Corfu Island. In the period of the WWI, Serbian pilots have succeeded to show the importance of the military aviation to all ministers and to secure the place of aviation in its modernized version .The French squadron has improved the opinion about the Air Force because it has represented the secure collaborator in all phases of the battle. In the second part of the WWI on Thessaloniki front line, the Air Force has played a big part for it was equipped and armored with the modern weapons and the modern a/c. As the war industry goes really fast, the Serbian Aviation got the modern a/c. After the re-organization on Corfu, the Serbian Aviation squadron has been moved to Mikra; not far away from the Thessaloniki. The material conditions of the Serbian Army caused that all available, trained and capable aviation staff be referenced to five French squadrons. These squadrons were added to Serbia on the Allied Forces Conference in Paris. The Serbian Command wanted to have certain level of independence over its own Air Force and it secured the independence under Command of the Serbian squadron in Mikra. There was also a strong will for the formation of an independent Serbian Aviation Squadron. These five Serbian-French squadrons formed the "Serbian Aviation" which was working as an integral part with the ground troops. Allied forces squadrons such as British, Italian and the Greek who actually had their own aviation units, also exited. In the certain phases of the WWI, the Central Force Air Forces succeeded to establish the dominance in the air, but at the end of the WWI (especially at the time of braking out the Thessaloniki's front line)allied forces commands have realized the value of this course, and the Serbian-French units, together with the allied forces Air Forces, have success to beat the enemy in everything. The year 1918 in the summer was a year of the absolute control of the sky over this area by the allied forces. Successive and strong brake up which Serbian Armies did as well as their brake up in the River Vardar Valley, caused the Bulgarian capitulation when the Serbian Army after only 45 days have success to move the enemy lines for 600 km, to be the winner for the third time in this ,the Austro Hungary was defeated. German Army was very exhausted and lost the great supporter. They have been actually forced to sign the armistice. On the Thessaloniki's front Serbian Aviation did 3000 combat flights, participated at all main operations and receipted the end of the WWI in the associated unit which counted 60 modern a/c. Staff of this unit consisted of the 70 pilots,40 reconnaissance and other aviation specialists. This aviation had staff and equipment with enormous experience.


1918-1941-"Golden era"


Serbia absorbed itself into newly formed "Kingdom of Serbs,Croats and Slovenes" in 1918.This title was changed later in 1929 into "Kingdom of Yugoslavia" by King Alexander,in attempt to promote unitarism between various groups in Kingdom.

Expirience from WWI,helped Serbian engineers and fabricants to start with domestic production of Airplanes.

Idea for domestic production was created in February 1920 by General Mihajlo Uzelac,also chef-of-staff for Airforce.

During time of 1918-1941 six factories where created:

1.IKARUS-stationed in Novi Sad and Belgrade
2.ROGOZARSKI- in Belgrade
3.ZMAJ - in Belgrade
5.UTVA-in Pancevo and Belgrade
6.ALBATROS- in Sremska Mitrovica

Besides these airplane factories also other factories were produced for creating various necessary parts for airplanes.

-RAKOVICA MOTOR FACTORY-For producing engines for Aircrafts,stationed in Rakovica,a suburb of Belgrade.
-Factories for producing precise Airplane instruments:MIKRON,NESTOR and TELEOPTIK - all in Belgrade.


Ikarus Factory


IKARUS was first factory that have started to produce domestic airplanes.

IKARUS developed from Engine factory 'INDUSTRIJA MOTORA PROTIC i SINOVI'(Motor Industry Protic & Sons).
This family firm was joined with Hydropilot Dimitrije Konjovic,who give inspiration for creation of Aircraft Factory.His friend Engineer Josef Michl joined the company.This company was merged by another motor factory and thus change name into:"IKARUS-FIRST SERBIAN INDUSTRY OF AIRCRAFTS,MOTORS AND ENGINES".

First aircraft they produced in their first factory in Novi Sad in March 1924.
This aircraft was adaptation of 'Branderburg' biplane.
It had marks 'SB-1',with Mercedes engine of 100 Hp.

With the beggining of Serial production,goverment gived funds for expansion of production.

They started with production of Hydroplanes for Navy,wich represent fully domestic design.
Production mark of long range seaplanes was 'IM',while for short ranged ones marks were 'IO'.

Becouse of the tension between Yugoslavia and Italy,ministry of defence decided to enlarge its airforce to more then 50 squadrons.

IKARUS also made aircrafts under license fighter planes,of French origin-'POTEZ-25' with Jupiter engine,wich had 420 Hp.

1931,New factory was builded in Belgrade for production of just fighter planes.
Novi Sad factory was focused on seaplanes..

Under the license from France figher planes 'BRESUET 19' were built,and under Czechoslovakian license,series of 30 'BH-33' were made in 1934-1935
IKARUS also made first fully Serbian-designed all-metallic fighter plane.Official mark was 'IK-2' Later ALL domestic figher planes will have the mark 'IK' IK-1 was also serially produced by Rogozarski,although inital design was from IKARUS.

During the early thirties, Yugoslav fighter squadrons were largely equipped with the Avia B. H. 33 biplane built under license by the Ikarus A. D. In 1931 six Hawker Furies had been ordered from U.K. and the Zmaj company produce Gourdou – Leseurre B.3 and Dewoitine D.27 fighters under French license, but many young engineers believed that Yugoslavia, possessing a healthy aircraft industry, should be capable of producing successful fighters of indigenous design. Accordingly, Kosta Sivcev and Ljubomir Ilic began the design of a cannon – armed, all – metal high – wing fighter monoplane as a private venture. Designed Ik –1, a prototype was ordered from the Ikarus A. D. in 1934, and was delivered for flight trials in April 1935.

Powered by an 860 h. p. Hispano – Suiza 12 Y c r s engine, the Ik–1 carried a 20mm H S. – 404 engine –mounted cannon and two 7.92mm Darne machine guns. Captain Leonid Bajdak who strongly favored the biplane over monoplane conducted tests at Zemun airport. During the second flight Bajdak put the I K –1 through a full range of aerobatics, but it failed to recover from a power dive during the third flight, and Bajdak, who parachuted to safety, reported that the aircraft was totally unsuited for use as a fighter. A detailed examination of the wreckage revealed the fact that the fabric covering of the port wing had failed as a result of negligence in sewing the seams, and therefore it was dedicated to proceed with a second prototype.

The second aircraft, which was designed Ik–2 was completed in June 1936, and featured metal skinned wings and a shallower radiator bath. A new test pilot, Dobnikar, undertook a preliminary flight trials of the Ik–2, and prototype was flown in mock combat with a Hawker Fury flown by Captain Bajdak, the Ik–2 out – performing the biplane on all counts. The outcome of these trails prompted the high command of the Yugoslav Air Force to order a production batch of 12 Ik –2 fighters, and these were all delivered by Ikarus during 1937.

When German forces invaded Yugoslavia in April 1941, eight Ik–2 fighters were steel serving with the 34th squadron of the 4th fighter regiment alongside six Hurricanes.

The Ik–2 s were used primarily to strafe the advancing German columns, and those fighters that survived were absorbed by the Croatian Air Force. One development of the basic design was proposed by Ikarus, this being the two – seat Ik–4 reconnaissance monoplane. However, the Yugoslav Air Force preferred the Henschel Hs 126, and the Ik–4 was not ordered.

When German forces invaded Yugoslavia in April 1941, eight Ik–2 fighters were steel serving with the 34th squadron of the 4th fighter regiment alongside six Hurricanes. The Ik–2 s were used primarily to strafe the advancing German columns, and those fighters that survived were absorbed by the Croatian Air Force. One development of the basic design was proposed by Ikarus, this being the two – seat Ik–4 reconnaissance monoplane. However, the Yugoslav Air Force preferred the Henschel Hs 126, and the Ik–4 was not ordered.

The second aircraft, which was designed Ik–2 was completed in June 1936, and featured metal skinned wings and a shallower radiator bath. A new test pilot, Dobnikar, undertook a preliminary flight trials of the Ik–2, and prototype was flown in mock combat with a Hawker Fury flown by Captain Bajdak, the Ik–2 out – performing the biplane on all counts. The outcome of these trails prompted the high command of the Yugoslav Air Force to order a production batch of 12 Ik –2 fighters, and these were all delivered by Ikarus during 1937.

When German forces invaded Yugoslavia in April 1941, eight Ik–2 fighters were steel serving with the 34th squadron of the 4th fighter regiment alongside six Hurricanes. The Ik–2 s were used primarily to strafe the advancing German columns, and those fighters that survived were absorbed by the Croatian Air Force. One development of the basic design was proposed by Ikarus, this being the two – seat Ik–4 reconnaissance monoplane. However, the Yugoslav Air Force preferred the Henschel Hs 126, and the Ik–4 was not ordered.


From 1936-1937 IKARUS also made 24 Howker Fury biplane fighters from British license.

From 1939 IKARUS,becouse of the threat of World War started with production of Bombers.

Under British license production of 'BRISTOL-BLENHEIM MK-1' bombers have started.Number of workers were increased over 5000.
First series of 41 Blenhams were produced in 1940.
In 1941 over 20 Blenham bombers were under production,when Germany attacked in April 1941.




ROGOZARSKI was probably the most sucessful Serbian airplane factory of all time.Some designs made by ROGOZARSKI(IK-3) were on technological top at that time.ROGOZARSKI was also able to sucesfully produce various type of aircrafts.

Factory was founded by Zivojin Rogozarski,a furniture maker in Belgrade.Inspired by IKARUS,he started tp produce airplanes,first in his workshop and later in his new factory.
In 1924,he started to produce wings for IKARUS SB-1 plane,and later he got contract with IKARUS to serially produce complete SB-1.
First flight of ROGOZARSKI made SB-1 was in 10 May 1925,and by the end of 1928 he produced over 60 SB-1 for training purposes.

This name also reflects competition between IKARUS and ROGOZARSKI.
They were in the same time competitors and bussines partners.

ROGOZARSKI factory have produced various domestically designed Airplanes.
One of first,but not least was P.V.T or P-100


It was constructed by team of engineers Fizir,Milutinovic,Savcevic and Biscevic in 1933.
P.V.T had Serbian-made motor GNOM-RON K-7 of 450 Hp.
Two-seated version was named P-100,although it is generally same design.
All part of airplane were Serbian-made.




Germany,and its allies attacked Yugoslavian kingdom in April 7,1941.
Yugoslavia joined allies in March 27 1941,mostly becouse of the sense of loyalty of some Officers,for the fact that Britain aided Serbia in WW I.
Britain also offered military aid,if Yugoslavia join British side.
Miltary coup was made in March 27,when pro-British Air-General Dusan Simovic owerthrown pro-German goverment of Regent Prince Pavle Karadjordjevic.
Hitler reacted in rage,and promised to destroy Yugoslavia and punish the Serbs.All neibouring countries of Yugoslavia had teritorial aspirations on its territory(except Greece and Romania),which was quite useful to Hitler.
Also there was anti-Serbian feelings amongst Croatians inside Yugoslavia,which Hitler also used to promise Croatians 'Greater Croatia' after Yugoslavia was destroyed militarily.

Off course Yugoslavia didnt get anything from Britain,just cynical response to Simovic during Telefon conversation with Churchill:"You Serbs are typical Balkanites,you react first and think later...".

Germans stationed its airforce and elite troops in almost all neibouring countries of Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia has really long borders,very hard to defend...unlike Serbia in 1914.

In April 7,Germany and Italy attacked Yugoslavia an all directions-North,West,South and East.They were aided by Hungarian and Bulgarian armies.

Almost entire Croatian members of Yugoslav Royal army(35%),Soldiers and Officers,joined the Germans,Disserted and Openly sabotaged every attempt to create organized resistance to German and Italian advance.
Large number of Bosnian Muslims also have done the same.

Beyond this disgusting stabbing in the back,there were also 500.000 German Volksdeutshers living in Yugoslavia.Almost all of them were offcourse pro-German.

Most of officers of Yugoslavian army were demoralized becouse of French defeat in 1940,and they also saw how suicidal is further resistance.This was also aided by treason of Brits,and internal sabotage by Croats,Muslims and Folksdeutshers.

Entire war lasted for about 12 days...

However during April war only R.Y.A.F and AA defence showed true resistance.Unlike in ground army,airforce was mostly made of Serbs and Slovenians,who both were in position to loose something in this war.

At the time of the German invasion on 6 April 1941, the Jugoslovensko Kraljjevsko Ratno Vazduhoplovstvo (JKRV - Royal Yugoslavian Air Force) flew a wide assortment and rather unique combination of aircraft. They flew among others the bombers Blenheims, Do17Ks and S.79s. Among the fighter they flew both the Bf109s and Hurricanes. The Fighter Force also used obsolete Hawker Furies, which equipped the 5th (Fighter) Puk (approx. Wing).
On the morning of April 6th 1941. only eight IK-2 and six IK-3 were in flying condition. The 107. squadron, wholly equipped with IK-2s situated on Bosanski Aleksandrovac airfield near Banja Luka and 161. /162. squadrons each had three flyable IK-3 on Zemun/ Belgrade airport.

On that, the first day of war IK-2s from 107. squadron patrolled over the Bosnia district, without the fighter action, but IK-3 squadrons, 161. /162. was on alert and each had three, two aircraft patrols at readiness. First patrol was lead by the Captain Todor Gogic, C.O. of the 161. squadron and his wingman Sgt. Milisav Semiz. Second patrol consisted of the 162nd. squadron C.O. Captain Sava Poljanec and Sgt. Dusan Vujicic

Third patrol consisted of 2nd.Lt. Dusan Borcic and Sgt.Eduard Banfic .

On the approach of first 234 Luftwaffe bombers (O7,OO) mostly Junkers JU-87s from I/St.G.2 and III St.G.3, Dornier Do-17 Z-2s, from I/K.G. 2, II/K.G.2, 111/K.G.2 and I/K.G.3 with Heinkel HE-111 Hs of II/K.G. 6, from Arad, Deta (Romania) and Szeged (Hungary) airfields, escorted by 120 fighters, all six IK-3 fighters took off but one, Dusan Vujicic had to land due the cooling system malfunction. In that first combat, IK-3 pilots destroyed six German aircrafts with one slightly damaged (Vujicic), two badly damaged (Poljanec and Banfic) and one, totally destroyed and the pilot 2nd.Lt. Dusan Borcic was killed. First patrol Gogic/Semiz shot down one Ju-87, Captain Sava Poljanec from second patrol shot down one JU-87 and one BF-109 E, but his aircraft was hit and the engine began to vibrate. He made straight for Zemun airfield spraying glycol behind the tail and on landing. One Me-110 strafed his IK-3. One cannon shell exploded behind his seat, but wounded Poljanec landed safely.

Third patrol, Borcic/Banfic shot down one DO-17 and one Bf 109E (Borcic) and probably one Me-110 (Banfic) In that continuing struggle over the Belgrade, Dusan Borcic was killed and Eduard Banfic was wounded and with seriously damaged IK-3 crash landed near the Zemun airfield.

During the three more waves, each of about 100 German bombers (10,00; 14,00; 16,00 hours), pilots Gogic, Semiz, Vujicic took of three times and Captain Todor Gogic claimed one HE-111 shot down.

On the first day of war, April 6th IK-3 pilots averaged three or four sorties and flyable IK-3 planes took off six to eight times.

Yugoslav IK-3 pilots shot down 14 Luftwaffe planes during six days of war, in return for three damaged and one lost IK-3. This was the end of short but glorious combat history of IK-2 and IK-3.

Germans attacked with over 1.000 planes,while Yugoslav air force had 330 planes.
In general both R.Y.A.F and AA units shoot about 100 German planes...
But April war was just beggining of true war in Yugoslavia...

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Rogožarski SIM-XIV-H




The Rogožarski SIM-XIV-H (Serbian: Рогожарски СИМ-XIV-Х) was a 1930s Yugoslav coastal reconnaissance floatplane and light bomber, twin-engined, with three crew members. It was designed and built at the Rogožarski factory in Belgrade.



Rogožarski R-100




The Rogožarski R-100 (Serbian Cyrillic:Рогожарски Р-100, transliterated as Rogožarski R-100 in German and as Rogojarsky Р-100 in some older English sources) was a single-engined, single-seat parasol winged aircraft designed as an advanced and fighter trainer built by Rogozarski in Yugoslavia before World War II. About 26 were built, serving with the Yugoslav Royal Air Force until the fall of Yugoslavia in 1941. After that, 11 R-100s were used by the newly formed Croatian Air Force, sometimes as ground attack aircraft, and one R-100 was used by the Italian Regia Aeronautica.


Rogožarski IK-3





The Rogožarski IK-3 (Serbian Cyrillic:Рогожарски ИК-3) was a 1930s Yugoslav low-wing monoplane single seat interceptor fighter with retractable landing gear, and was designed by Ljubomir Ilić and Kosta Sivčev as a successor to their IK-1/IK-2 fighter. It was regarded as a generally effective aircraft, easier to handle than the contemporary Messerschmitt Bf 109E and Hawker Hurricane Mk.I.


Rogožarski IK-2




The Ikarus IK-2 was a 1930s high-wing, all-metal, single seat, monoplane fighter aircraft of indigenous design built for the Royal Yugoslav Air Force. The IK-2 was designed by Kosta Sivčev and Ljubomir Ilić, who saw the desirability of a home-developed aircraft industry in their country, whose aerial forces had up to that point been supplied by machines from abroad.


And many, many, many and many more.



Licence Built Aircraft:


Bristol Blenheim

Hawker Fury

Hawker Hurricane

Do 17

Hanriot HD.32

Hanriot H.41

Dewoitine D.27

Gourdou-Leseurre GL.2

Heinkel HE 8

Spartan Cruiser II


And more...

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Captured Planes




On the 1. April 1941. one Bf-110C landed at airfield near Kraljevo due to mistake in orientation. This aircraft received Yugoslav camouflage and markings. After German invasion on 6 April 1941 this aircraft made one flight from Kraljevo to airfield in Veliki Radinci near Belegrade. During the landing process it was hit by machinegun fire from the ground. Pilot survived the crash landing uncrated. Solder who opened fire tough that he is shooting on German aircraft. German forces found remains of this Bf-110C as they occupied Yugoslavia.

There are no photographs of this Bf-110C with Yugoslav camouflage and markings. Camouflage scheme you can see here was made according testimony of the witnesses. Dip. ing Ognjan Petrovic conducted a research of history about this aircraft.


BF-109 G

JU-87B Stukas

FW-109 F8


And more...

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Okay the idea here is to make a Roundel for all of the Scandinavian Nations. All Scandinavian Nations had at lot to do with the War.

Denmark and Norway were at War with Germany. Finland Was at War with the U.S.S.R and Allied with Germany. And Sweden Traded with the Germans and Had Volunteers that were Fighting/[At War] with U.S.S.R.


[Now the Roundels them Self]


f292c026441c02d34b4bbeaae87b696a.jpg <-  Roundel Used for Danish Armed Forces Air Force-And Danish Royal Navy Air Force. {History} Also used for Armed Forces untill 2003, And the Royal Danish Navy untill 2012. Denmark too Worked alot with the Germans after the Danish Goverment Surrender'ed.



no-round.gif<- Royal Norwegian Air Force Roundel {History] Well i could not find the year it was made it is still

beeing used today. Norway too Were the First to fight a Winter war with The Germans and were Aid'ed by the Brithish.


Finland_roundel.png<- Finnish Air Force Roundel  {History}  Finland was The country that was in the War the Most and the Country that had the Biggest army in the Nordic Belt/Scandinavia It Worked with The Germans. I did not take the Most used one becose it has a Swatika on it.


brand.gif<-Swedish Air Force Roundel {History}-The Three Swedish Crowns are the National symbel of Sweden and The Swedish Coat of Arms. The Swedish Goverment Traded with Germany, With Metal from North Sweden.


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Edited by Oldenburg
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Just some more random images as example (All using roundel 1 since these were late/post-war purchased aircraft).


Sea Fury











Edited by Tarskin
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