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LT_McCormick posted a topic in SquadronsVirtual Squadron 119 What is VS119? - Virtual Squadron 119 is a well-established RB community in WarThunder, about to hit our 5th year of operation. - We fly United States Navy and Marine Corps aircraft in trainings & events when possible, as well as U.S. Tanks. - We utilize correct era U.S. Navy and Marine Corps rank structure. Our pilots are Naval Aviators with naval officer ranks, and our tankers are Marine Tank crewmen with proper World War 2 USMC ranks. - Our squadron is made up of individuals ranging from age 16 to 36, mostly from the United States, but we welcome anyone from any corner of the globe that can meet our time requirements. - We have a significant number of retired, reserve, and/or active duty U.S. military personnel. - We have organized squadrons and flights centered around Fighters, Dive Bombers/Attackers, and armored vehicles. Entry Requirements: *Must be at least 16 years old. Applicants under 16 will not be accepted. *Must have a working microphone. Recruitment Needs: 50% TANK PLAYERS 30% BOMBER PILOTS 20% FIGHTER PILOTS *****DISCLAIMER: APPLYING TO VS119 DOES NOT GUARANTEE ENTRY, NOR DOES ACCEPTANCE GUARANTEE A POSITION IN OUR SQUADRON. EVERY NEW RECRUIT IS EVALUATED FOR APTITUDE AND MATURITY, AND CAN BE DROPPED AT ANY TIME DURING THE FLIGHT SCHOOL PROCESS.***** If an organized, tactical, tight-knit community of skilled naval aviators appeals to you, join today in Teamspeak (18.104.22.168:9988) & speak to a Recruiting Officer. Recruiting Officers: LCDR Watson LT C. Vollmer 1stLt C. Young
Azumazi posted a topic in General & UpcomingStarting on 1908, December 25th, a new system was devised for the designation of Naval armaments. Up until this point, the vast majority of weapons were imported from Krupp Works in Germany which were known as Kokuryokaku-ho or the Koku type. They also imported guns from Great Britain from Armstrong Ltd and Elswick. The main gun being the 12cm 40-cal QF gun. This weapon armed many of their second class, third class, and even first class cruisers and were used as secondary weapons on their early first class and second class battleships. The first weapons that were designed and built in Japan for Naval vessels were the 47mm and 57mm QF guns. Designed by Lieutenant Yamauchi Masuji who would later achieve the rank of Vice Admiral, designed them for smaller vessels to be used against torpedo boats. They later designed a 12cm, 20cm, and even a 30cm gun based off Armstrong designs which were adopted to their needs. So in 1908 to help better logistically keep these weapons in order they started a system. They would be listed by their Kokei (Caliber), then by the year it was produced (Shiki) off the Japanese calendar, but this would be changed twice. Example The 50-Cal Type 3 12.7cm guns were designed in the third year of Emperor Showa, however in 1927 all weapons would be cataloged based off the last 2 digits of the Japanese Calendar instead of the Reign year. This needs to be understood as some weapons such as the 40-Cal Type 41 15-cm guns (1908) in the 41st year of the Meiji Emperor will be recategorized when reused. This gets confusing later. 6 Inch gun Development For the most part, Japan's only 6 inch, or later by 1917 as the adoption of the Metric system was in full swing, the 15cm gun, was the Vickers-Armstrong Mark I-II 6 inch-50 caliber gun. Originally designed when ordered by the Japanese for the Kongo class as their secondary armament. Later, a prominate Engineer in Japan, Dr. Hata Chiyokichi would slightly redesign them in 1912 for the Japanese built ships. The only real difference was the Japanese version used a cheaper 3-Layer build up instead of a wire-wound construction, which also made it easier to replace the liners in them. By the way, get to know Dr Hata Chiyokichi, he's basically the Yuzuru Hiraga of Japanese Guns. 50-Cal Type 41 15cm The Mark III and Mark II versions were found to be excellent weapons, but they had one downside. The 45.36kg (100lbs) shell was too heavy for the common Japanese sailor to handle. This means that the rate of fire of 10 rpm that was tested in England ended up falling to 5-6 rpm with Japanese sailors due to the need to have 2 men carry the shell and it also strained the crews. Since these weapons were casemates, the shells and bags had to be carried from the hoists to the guns, meaning the loaders would have to move them from the hoists between 10-15m away to the guns and wait in position to load the projectile, ram it, then the bag, ram it, and close the screw breech. By the time the Japanese figured this out, the Fuso class along with the Kongo class were already underway and any changes would be difficult. So the last 2 vessels of the Fuso class which were to be "Advanced Fuso"s and later known as the Ise class would be the first to adopt a new secondary gun designed by Hata Chiyokichi. The Guns had a maximum range of 12400m at 15 degrees elevation when designed, they would later be modernized on the Kongo and Fuso class to 30 degrees elevation giving them an 18000m range. Spare barrels later removed from the Kongo class and Fuso class would also later be fitted on the Agano class with new dual mounts and handling rooms capable of 55 degree elevation for use against Air targets. They had 2 types of HE shells designed for them. A Nose and Base fused shell along with an Anti-Submarine shell much a like the one designed for the 14cm gun. 50-Cal Type 3 14cm The Type 3 was designed in response to the issues found with the Type 41 15cm gun. It had excellent ballistics and performance, but due to the style of loading for casemate weapons it was found difficult to maintain a high volume of fire. The Type 14 was basically a downsized Type 41 15cm gun. The 100lbs shell was reduced to 38kg or 83lbs. The propellant charge was also smaller at 10.33kg for early charges and 10.97kg for later vs 12.4kg. The original 20 degree elevation mounts managed 15800m range and later 20,574m at 35 degrees. Due to the lighter shells, they were able to take the rpm up to 10 minutes depending on the rate of supply. The weapon would be fitted on the Ise and Nagato class and projected to be fitted on the capital classes of the Fuso, Amagi, Kii, and the No 13 class. Due to the Washington Naval treaty, the classes were canceled and the spare barrels would go in storage. They would later be used for many of the new Light cruiser classes laid down by Japan before the Mogami class. This would include the Tenryu, Kuma, Nagara, Sendai, Yubari, and the Katori classes listed by Year of launching. The one thing that was also enjoyed about the change was that the higher muzzle velocity gave a flatter shot up to 5km while maintaining around the same barrel life of 500-600 rounds. The guns were designed with a Base fused HE shell and a Nose Fused HE shell initially. Later on they designed a flat nosed Anti-Submarine Shell that was designed to fire at roughly a range of 4km to dive the shell to hit submarines at periscope depth. They never designed an AP Shell for the weapon. 60-Cal Type 3 15.5cm Before the final signing of the London Naval Treaty which updated the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty, the Japanese contemplated designing their new Cruisers to have a DP main battery. The English attempted to do this with an 8 inch gun. The Mark I had the ability to elevate to 70 degrees. They attempted to allowed it to load at any angle, but they found an issue. Due to the nature of using a shell and bag system, they then attempted to have it load at an angle of 10 degree's only. They found that the nature of having to depress the gun and elevate to engage an aircraft again severely limited it's ability to engage a moving aircraft and opted to remove the use of the main gun as a DP weapon. The Japanese first Prototype had 2 problems. They first opted to use a 15.5cm as was allotted by the new treaty. They wanted it to be DP, but to still use a bag and shell system instead of a fixed propellant casing to allow it to be adjusted by charge. The complex workings of the gyro system to stabilize the gun at such an elevation caused problems. So Dr. Hada opted to correct this by using a simpler spring based balancer system and lock the elevation at 55 degrees. Due to this it had limited ability to engage aircraft but retained a good Anti-Shipping capability. The guns were also designed to hit 7 rounds per minute but in practice this was never achieved. The bucket hoists for the propellant could not go faster than 5 rounds per minute due to their shared systems with the 50-Cal Type 3 20cm guns of the Heavy Cruiser classes. The Shell hoist was capable of 6-7 rounds per minute, but due to issues with the pressure in the system, they capped the shell hoist at 6 rpm. Due to this, the guns could not fire faster than 5 rpm. They had also originally opted to have a 4th shell hoist for AA fire to help supply all 3 guns but decided to remove it due to the limited speed of the powder hoist. Even though the limited ability to engage aircraft, the Japanese still decided to keep a fuse setting at the breach to set shells for engaging aircraft. Due to the guns originally being designed to engage Aircraft, they had quite a bit of spacing between each other to fit the recoil systems needed for a 70 degree elevation. With them not installed and limited to 55 degrees there was quite a bit of moving room in the turrets for a 6 inch gun turret. Also unlike many 6 inch gun turrets of the time, the guns were individually sleeved allowing independent fire. The spacing of the guns also gave them a benefit few guns had at the time, an abnormally tight long range salvo. On August 17th-21st of 1938. The Mikuma fired test salvos to test the new welds of the hull that were design to correct some of the issues in the Mogami class. She achieved a mean salvo spread of 278m at 20km. This was tighter than all of the Heavy Cruisers that Japan had designed armed with 8 inch guns and even was tighter than any of the other 6 inch armed cruisers of other nations at such a range at the time. The comparison between the Brooklyn class of the US Navy, at 20000 yards their mean dispersion was around 400 yards vs the 304 yards of the Mogami. The Weapons Type 91 AP Shell was tested against NVNC (New Vickers Non-Cemented) Armor to simulate penetration on belt armor. It was found to penetrate 10.8cm of armor at 15km and 10cm at 20km as reported, however, this is incorrect. Due to an improper listing in the original NavTechJap reports it should read as the following. 5km range 194mm penetration, 15km range 100mm penetration, 20km range 75mm penetration, with 100-108mm penetration with Mod1 shells at 20km. The initial shells were not capped. They had designed a Capped shell for penetrating Face Hardened Armor but opted not to issue it for whatever reason. The main reason could be their motive to replace the guns with 20.3cm mounts like the other Class A cruisers. When the guns were fitted to the Yamato and Musashi, they were issued the same shells that the Mogami/Suzuya class were originally. They had an HE shell with a Nose fuse designed for them for use against Aircraft or surface targets. They also designed an Illumination round for the gun. Rated at 931200 Candela. This is roughly 1/3rd more powerful than the common Illumination round issued to vessels armed with the later Type 89 12.7cm DP guns. 5-Inch Gun Development For Japan, the start of the 5 inch gun actually started at the 4.7 inch spectrum or the 12cm. The original guns were ordered before the first world war, and were known as the Mark V 4.7 Inch Vickers-Armstrong and Elswick guns. They were used to arm Torpedo Destroyers and as secondary guns for early Battleships. These guns would later be designated as the 45-Cal Type 3 4.7 inch, and then later again as the 45-Cal Type 11 12cm guns. Remember how I said them changing up the years would confuse you, this is where it starts to happen. 45-Cal Type 3/Type 11/ Type 1 12cm Guns The earliest guns that were retained in service were of 1914 age. They were originally build up construction with wire round, but later ended up being built in a monobloc construction with a single barrel with liner. The original ones were a Welin-Screw Breech, but in 1922 they designed a horizontal sliding breech to be used which increased rate of fire. These were used in Submarines originally but later on would be reused to arm escort vessels. Due to a lack of enough materials, only some vessels got the newer sliding breech while others just had to refit the older screw breeches. But many of these escort vessels like the Etorofu were rapidly produced to attempt to protect their merchant fleets that were being preyed on by US Submarines. The screw breech version could achieve a 5 rpm rate of fire. They were fed by a bucket chain hoist system which could handle between 5-10 rpm depending on the year in question. The sliding breech could achieve an average of 8 rpm. 4 different rounds were developed for the guns, an older HE Common shell, later a newer shell which a nose fuse that could be fit with a Type 88 Fuse for time setting or direct fuse. They also designed an Illumination round with around 578,000 Candela in strength on lighting. They also developed an ASW shell (Anti-Submarine Warfare) much like the 14cm, 15cm, and 12.7cm guns. Considering that these guns were reused to engage submarines on escorts it's no surprise they wanted an ASW shell to go with the guns. These guns would be the basis for Japan's first AA/DP gun and replaced the more common Type 3 8-cm gun which will be explained in more detail later with the development of the Type 98 8cm gun. [spoiler][/spoiler] 45-Cal Type 10 12cm Gun These guns were developed based on a need for a secondary weapon larger than 4cm to engage aircraft. The concept of a QF (Quick Fire) gun wasn't new, but one that could load at any angle and elevate to engage an aircraft target effectively was something new for a naval vessel. Many nations at the time were beginning to take aircraft more seriously and such began to arm their vessels with a means to defend themselves. Taking the Sliding Breech system design, they developed a fixed shell with cartridge. The gun was designed to elevate to 75 degrees. With a bucket chain hoist system it was designed with a rate of fire of 10 rpm. Initial testing of the guns were found to be satisfactory. In 1928 a gun test on the Aoba firing at a target moving at 70 knots at 2km range averaged around 1.8 to 2.6% average hit rate with around a 6-7rpm rate of fire. Mind you, for 1928, that wasn't half bad considering this was before radar or High Angle targeting computers where these guns were attempting to engage a target with a gun scope using a range finder to speed up the initial shots and adjusting for lead and drop. Later the Myoko using the same guns in 1931 achieved around a 2.2% hit rate overall using the new Type 89 High Angle computer with the vessel in motion at 18 knots vs Aoba at stationary. They developed 6 different rounds for these guns. Initially they only had a Common HE shell, which was later replaced with a newer Common Type 1 HE with a nose fuse. This would be supplemented with a Type 4 Sankaidan shell (Incendiary Rubber/Thermite Shrapnel) to engage aircraft. They also were capable of firing the same ASW shells that the older Type 3 12cm as they were the same caliber so they fit the shells into fixed cartridges for use. An Illumination round was also designed much like the Type 3 12cm with the same rated Candela power. They also developed an experimental long range AA round with a fin system to increase its AA ceiling from 10km to 14km. This was to began arming the fixed mounts around Japan on land to engage medium and heavy bombers. Due to the surrender of Japan, they were never used. By 1934, the gun was considered obsolete due to new technologies in aircraft and they soon looked to replace it. 50-Cal Type 3 12.7cm Gun Around the same time the Type 10 12cm guns were being designed, the Japanese navy began designing an enclosed DP mount for their new line of Destroyers. They were reusing an older Type 3 12.7cm gun, which was a Welin screw breech. This limited the rate of fire but the concept was quite original. With an enclosed mount it was protected from spray from the ocean and allowed a hoist to be mounted directly inside. At the time the Torpedo Destroyer, later known as just Destroyers, were generally envisioned with the role to engage fast surface raiders with torpedo weaponry against capital vessels. Starting around the early to mid 20s the concept of anti-submarine warfare using them also came to pass due to their small size and speed they made good vessels for the job. Britain and the US had ideas about using the Destroyer to compliment capital vessels with their smaller AA weapons, but Japan was the first to mount a DP primary mount with the Fubuki class. Rate of fire was between 5-10 rounds based on conditions in the vessels such as high rolling from rough seas and how well trained and rested the loader was at the time. The other limitation was the mounts were heavy for the time. At 32.5 metric tons, this is roughly 3x heavier than previous mounts employed by the Japanese Navy on Destroyers. In comparison at the time of the Fubuki class, the average weight of a mount on British and US vessels was around 9 tons and were single 4 inch or 4.7 inch guns. The guns as a surface weapon were well liked save for the fact that it was mentioned that the first sets needed better strengthening as it had excessive dispersion. It's limited 4-6 degrees per second train rate also hurt it against later faster aircraft.They would later develop single mounts for escort vessels and even land mounts with older guns in storage. The Single mounts were designed for surface use but could elevate to 55 degrees compared to the original 75 degrees to engage low flying aircraft. All of the same rounds developed for the Type 10 12cm gun were developed for the Type 3 12.7cm gun. This includes the experimental high angle shell with a maximum altitude achieved of 15km vs the original 12.2km. The guns had their downsides being the first type, the upside was that the mounts were weather proof and splinter resistant. One unique feature they had was that due to fears of possible gas rounds used by future navies against vessels, they were designed to be gas proof with ventilation being filtered and the excess gas being forced out from gun fire. Weirdly enough though is that they were the only turrets designed as such, others has the benefit of the like if they were enclosed on larger vessels due to the extraction system clearing out the gases from the gun breeches with compressed air run out, but the smaller Destroyer guns lacked this features. 45-Cal Type 89 12.7cm Gun Due to the advancement of aircraft technology and the development of larger bombs by aircraft including torpedo's, the idea of needing a larger more powerful secondary DP/AA gun was already on the board within 5 years of the first designs of the Type 10 12cm AA gun. The Type 89 was adopted for service in 1932, replacing the Type 10 12cm on Cruisers, Battleships, and Carriers that could fit the new mounts. Like the Type 10, they were a silding breech block, but with advancements. The first one was that they were designed to work in dual mounts which fired in tandum to better guarantee a hit on aircraft. This means they were not individually sleeved. They also were designed with a spring rammer to ram the shell home without being hand rammed. This allowed 2 loaders to reload the tray and after firing to roll them into position, dual ram them, and rapidly fire again. Due to this design the gun system could achieve up to 14 rpm with ready ammo storages but would later be reduced to 8 rpm for sustained fire due to hoist limitations. They had a good elevation and train rate for their size, and later models without the shield more than double the train rate. What was well liked about them is that they had a pointer method of following a target from the FCS, but they were electric driven compared to the older 12cm guns. The guns were well liked for their time of design. At 1932 they were capable of engaging any current aircraft fielded by any nation at sea with ease. They did suffer from a poor AA Ceiling due to the lower muzzle velocity, but at the time of their design and installation few aircraft attacked a ship above 4500m, the guns could engage at a higher elevation, but not past 4km distance. The US 5 inch/38 Mark 12 guns suffered the same maximum engagement range limitation early on, but they made up for it with the use of much faster mounts, improved development of powder for better velocities later in the war, and proximity fuses allowing easier engagement of aircraft. The Japanese did develop a Proximity Fuse to be used with the Type 89 12.7cm guns along with a few others, but the design was not ready until too late in the war to make a difference. It isn't known entirely if they came up with the idea from a possible captured US fuse or from their dealings with Germany as Germany did attempt the same concept but canceled the project and reopened too late to make a difference. The Type 89 gun would be the most fielded secondary gun on Japanese vessels in WW2. Since many of the vessels were refit with them from 1932-1940, it was a very common weapon.